Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Rome, 64 A. D. Emperor Nero watched in horror as the great city of Rome burned for six days and seven nights. Afterwards 70% of the city was left in smoldering ruins and devastation. (The Burning of Rome, 64 AD 1) Why the exact cause of the fire is unknown, we wonder if an effective sprinkler system could have prevented this incident and others like it. A city that was well known for their magnificent construction, architecture, and irrigation systems was almost completely destroyed by one incident. Many codes do not require a specific type of Automatic Sprinkler System. While the most common type found is the Wet Pipe System; Dry Pipe, Preaction, and Deluge Systems can be found in many different occupancy types. The two main purposes of automatic sprinkler systems are to extinguish fires and control the fire until appropriate personnel arrive to extinguish the fire. Automatic sprinkler systems are expected in all occupancy types, except residential, unless the hazard is not compatible with water. For these hazards there are several other types of suppression systems that can be installed to manage the incident. By installing an automatic sprinkler system, you increase life safety and property protection. What is the standard of sprinkler systems? The goal is to increase life safety and decrease property damage. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has been the leader in mandating standards and requirements when it comes to sprinkler systems. They have developed many standards that address the installation, inspection, and maintenance of sprinklers. Wet pipe systems are closed water systems attached to a piping system containing pressurized water at all times. This type of automatic sprinkler system is the most common type, and can be found in all most all occupancy types. Unless the potential of freezing pipes or other special conditions apply, this type of system will be encountered most frequently. The operation of this sprinkler system is very simple. The wet-pipe system consists of sprinkler heads attached to sprinkler supply lines that interlace the occupancy. When a fire first starts there is minimum heat generated. As the fire grows and the thermal layer is disturbed, heat rises to the targeted sprinkler heads. Depending on the rated temperature of the sprinkler head, a fusible disc or link melts from the heat and initiates the flow of water. While most fires are controlled by one or two sprinkler heads, in the case of fast moving fires more may be needed to control the fire. When water is flowed from the system, typically other things may happen. In all most all wet-pipe systems, there is some type of audible alarm activated at the standpipe. This will trigger other alarms in the building, and most of the time notifies an agency that will then notify the Fire Department of a water flow alarm or others like it. Dry pipe systems use air or nitrogen to keep the supply line pressurized at all times. This type of automatic sprinkler system is commonly found in the colder areas where the possibilities of freezing pipes are encountered. Dry-pipe systems provide the same adequate protection similar to wet-pipe systems. The piping is charged with air or nitrogen, and when a sprinkler head is activated the drop in the pressure opens a valve at the standpipe that allows water to flow into the systems. (Bahme 25) Just like the wet-pipe system, normally one or two sprinkler heads are needed to control the fire. There will also be an alarm that is activated notifying the appropriate agency to contact the Fire Department. At lest once a week the system should be tested to make sure that the air pressure within the piping is maintained. The third type of automatic sprinkler system is the Pre-action System. This type of system is a closed piping system that contains air, which may or may not be under pressure. When a fire occurs the fire detecting device signals the control valve to open charging the system. This type of system is usually used where the possibility of broken pipes and sprinkler heads may result. The most common places found include electrical rooms, computer rooms, and other areas that may house expensive equipment. There can be several types of pre-action system including a recycling system. This system is capable of charging the piping, discharging water, then cutting itself off. In the event that the fire rekindles, it can discharge again. It then has the ability to recycle the water. Deluge systems are much like Pre-action systems except that the sprinkler heads are open and the system is not charged. Similar to that of the pre-action systems, a fire detection device, usually a heat sensor, activates the discharge valve on the system. The difference is that the entire sprinkler component of the system is open; therefore the area that is activated is deluged in water. These types of automatic sprinkler system can be found where a high hazard of flammable liquid may be encountered. The most common place is aircraft hangars. Caution should be taken though; in confined spaces the oxygen level can be deficient when these systems are activated due to the copious amounts of water. Combined Dry-Pipe and Pre-action systems are composed of both the systems mentioned above. These systems have the dry pipe features with the pre-action features in the event the dry pipe portion fails. These systems are used when an area is too large to be covered by a dry pipe system. On the same note though, combined systems were originally developed for protection during cold climates. Long lines would be subject to freezing. These systems are commonly found when dealing with long piers. (Bahme 30) It is important to note this type of system is considered two independent systems. Testing requires individual standards for both type; consisting of the dry pipe system and the pre-action system. Limited water supply systems are those where supply water cannot be properly supplied to the occupancy. These systems consist of many wide range types and can be used as outside sprinklers and confined space sprinklers. Some research obtained shows that one type of limited water sprinkler type could be the antifreeze sprinkler system. This type of system is very uncommon and is normally not accepted and used in recent automatic sprinkler systems. In conclusion, there are several types of water sprinklers used in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s management to help increase life safety and decrease property damage. By including detection devices and the correct sprinkler heads, these systems can mean the difference between life and death. The occupancy should have the correct automatic sprinkler system that will properly suppress the material relevant in that occupancy regardless of the type. The preferred automatic sprinkler system should all be able to notify the occupants, summon the correct agency to suppress the fire, sound alarms, supervise fire control, and initiated a wide variety of auxiliary functions involving environmental, utility, and process controls. (IFSTA 559)
Master Harold and the Boys, a play written by famous playwright Althol Fugard, shares the story of a seventeen year old white boy, Hally, who spends time with two African- American servants, Sam and Willie. While the majority of the play is a conversation between the three inside a tea room, Fugard does a brilliant job of exposing the struggles that is dealt with at the time. The context of Master Harold and the Boys is deep and meaningful, especially since the play sets in South Africa. He depicts how industrialized racism really is, showing that when an individual lives under a certain set of assumptions, it is really easy to catch others views of hatred, bigotry, and at the time, apartheid. Fugard shows his true artisism for publishing this play because it takes a true artist to be able to confront problems that a society deals with and to be able to make people more considerate of their actions towards others. There is a great deal of emotional value that comes with this play. When this play was written back in 1982, South Africa was still dealing with apartheid which is similar to the United States' time of segregation. In fact, the emotional value of this play was so enormous that it was actually banned in South Africa at the time. The plot is heavy because it takes Hally's childhood innocence and turns him towards a poisness bigotry, just like what most of the adult society did during that time. The real turning point is when Hally finds out about his father returning home from the hospital. In the beginning of the play, Sam and Willie talked about ballroom dancing. They could relate to readers of the play who also dance because they might understand the pressures of dancing and the amount of skill that goes into it. However, no matter what the pressures of dance may be, it is never acceptable for a man to hit a woman. Fugard might have showed this side of Willie because domestic relationships were very common back in the 1950s. Even though there was a rise in feminism movements, men still had most of the control and strength. While blacks were still considered to be property, women during that era did not have many rights as well. Hally, Sam, and Willie have more of a friendship during the beginning of the play, but when Hally becomes distraught with the news of his dad coming home, he violently unleashes on his servants. It becomes clear that his father's vicarious racism was a learned behavior observed by Hally. From this point on, Hally no longer treats Willie and Sam as friends, but as subservient help. Hally demands that they must call him Ã¢â¬Å"Master HaroldÃ¢â¬ as he spits on his servants. Using the word Ã¢â¬Å"masterÃ¢â¬ showed that Hally had full possesion over them, and he wanted them to know it. He also used the spitting incident as a way to show control because that was typical during that time era. Spitting on someone is considered to be very degrading to that individual and is a form to show their unworthiness. I think my personal impact on the play has definitely changed. After I read the play, I understood what happened, but it was not until our class discussion where I really put the pieces of the play together. One eye opener during out discussion was when we were talking about the word Ã¢â¬Å"boysÃ¢â¬ in the title. I simply thought that Fugard used that word because of their gender, but I had no idea that using the word Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ towards a black person is degrading. I really admired how Fugard attacked this problem that was facing South Africa's society and how he exposed the realities of bigotry. I think it would be great to see this play as a production. I believe the acting of the words verses just a persons imagination could be a real eye opener to how people see and treat others. This play will continue to be relevant in American and South Africas societies because it is a reminder of our history and how our society needs to continue to grow away from racism and towards a more accepting society of all. Master Harold and the Boys Ã¢â¬Å"Master HaroldÃ¢â¬ . . and the Boys is not an overtly political play, but a depiction of Ã¢â¬Å"a personal power? struggle With political implica-tions. Ã¢â¬ The only definition that the South African system can conceive of in the relationship of White to Black is one that humiliates black people. This definition Ã¢â¬Å"insinuates itself into every social sphere of existence, until the very language of ordinary human discourse begins to reflect the policy that makes black men subservient to the power exercised by white children. Ã¢â¬ In the society depicted by Fugard White equals Ã¢â¬Å"MasterÃ¢â¬ and Black equals Ã¢â¬Å"boy. It is an equation, continued Durbach, that ignores the traditional relationship of labor to man-agement or of paid employee to paying employer. During the course of the drama, Hally rapidly realigns the components of his long? standing friend-ship with Sam into the socio? political patterns of master and servant. Hally changes from intimate familiarity with his black companions to patroniz-ing condescension to his social inferiors. It is an exercise of power by Hally, himself a Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ who feels powerless to control the circumstance of his life and therefore seeks some measure of autonomy in his interaction with Sam and Willie.Robert Brustein, in a review in the New Repub-lic, described' Ã¢â¬ËMaster HaroldÃ¢â¬ . . . and the Boys as the Ã¢â¬Å"quintessential racial anecdote,Ã¢â¬ and ascribed to Fugard's writing Ã¢â¬Å"a sweetness and sanctity that more than compen sates for what might be prosaic, rhetorical, or contrived about it. Ã¢â¬ There is a sugges-tion that Fugard' s obsession with the theme of racial injustice may be an expression of his own guilt and act of expiation. As Brian Crow noted in the Inter-national Dictionary of Theatre, Critical Overview 24 biographical in-formation, however, is not needed in order for the play to make its full impact in the theatre.This is achieved primarily through an audience's empathy with the loving relationship between Hally and Sam and its violation through Hally's inability to cope with his emotional turmoil over his father, and its expression in racism. If to what extent the play manages. . . to transmute autobiographical experi-ence into a larger exploration or analysis of racism in South Africa is arguable; what seems quite cer-tain is its capacity to involve and disturb audiences everywhere. Yet not all critical reaction to Fugard's work has been positive. Failing to see the play's wider mes sage on racism, Stephen Gray saw Ã¢â¬Å"Master HaroldÃ¢â¬ as nothing more than a play about apart-heid. In a 1990 New Theatre Quarterly article, Gray noted that South Africa's dissolution of apartheid has made the play obsolete, stating that it Ã¢â¬Å"feels like a museum piece today. Ã¢â¬ Other negative criticism found the play's black characters to be falsely represented As Jeanne Colleran reported in Modern Drama, Ã¢â¬Å"To some black critics, the character of Sam is a grotesquerie.His forbearance and forgive-ness, far from being virtues, are embodiments of the worst kind of Uncle Tom? ism. Ã¢â¬ Such reproach prompted Fugard to clarify his intentions during the Anson Phelps Stokes Institute's Africa Roundtable. As Colleran reported, Fugard stated that his inten-tion was to tell a story: Ã¢â¬Å"I never set out to serve a cause. . . . The question of being a spokesman for Black politics is something I've never claimed for myself. Ã¢â¬ Such criticism for Ã¢â¬Å"Master Har oldÃ¢â¬ was spo-radic, however The majority of Critics and audi-ences embraced the playas important and thought? rovoking. Commenting on Fugard's ability to fuse theatricality with strong political issues, Dennis Walder wrote in Athol Fugard, Ã¢â¬Å"Fugard's work. . . contains a potential for subversion, a potential which, I would suggest, is the hallmark of great art, and which qualifies his best work to be called great. Ã¢â¬ In this essay Wiles examines Fugard' splay as a political drama, taking into account the dissolution of the apartheid system in South Africa and how that affects contemporary perceptions of the work. He concludes that the play is still relevant as a chroni-cle of human relations.What happens to the overall effect of a play when the societal forces that shaped it have changed to the point where the playwright himself says: , , [A] political miracle has taken place in my time. Ã¢â¬ Such might appear to be the case for Athol Fugard and his play Ã¢â¬Å"Ma ster HaroldÃ¢â¬ .. and the Boys The South African system of apartheid? legislated separation of the races? has been dismantled; free and open elections have been held; a black man, Nelson Mandela, has been elected president of the country. The power of whites, regardless of their age or station, to subjugate and humiliate blacks with he full blessing of the government and society at large has evaporated. The question that begs to be asked, then, is: What is this play about if not about political struggle? By focusing attention on the adolescent antago-nist Hally, Fugard creates a more personal drama-, a drama rooted in the uncertainties of a youth who attends a second? rate school and whose parents own and operate a third? rate cafe. Displaying Ã¢â¬Å"a few stale cakes,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"a not very impressive display of sweets,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a few sad ferns in pots,Ã¢â¬ the St.George's Park Tea Room hardly seems the seat of power. And, the arrival of Hally, in clothes that are Ã¢â¬Å"a little neglected and untidyÃ¢â¬ and drenched from the heavy rains that keep customers away, does little to prepare the audience for the play's explosive confrontation. When Hally enters the cafe, it appears that he is glad for the lack of patrons so that he and Sam and Willie can have a Ã¢â¬Å"nice, quiet afternoon. Ã¢â¬ There is the implication that both he and the two men have enjoyed these types of days in the past.Hally's world, however, begins to crumble when Sam in-forms him that his mother has gone to the hospital to bring his father home. Hally's annoyance at the comic books piled on the table? Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual rubbishÃ¢â¬ ? changes into fury when Willie throws a slop rag at Sam, misses, and hits Hally. Hally swears and tells both Willie and Sam to Ã¢â¬Å"stop fooling around. Ã¢â¬ Hally calls Sam back to have him explain what Hally's mother said before she left for the hospital He convinces himself that his father is not coming home, that Sam heard wro ng, and that the world he has created for himself will continue undisturbed.His willingness to shift the discussions to the varieties of textbook learning and then to the more Important learning gleaned from the servants quar-ters at the old Jubilee Boarding House under the tutelage of Sam and Willie, indicate Hally's inabili-ty to accept that his life is about to change once again. Hally returns to the comfort of the historical past, discussing Joan of Arc, World War I, Charles Darwin, Abraham Lincoln, and William Shake-speare with Sam. He also returns to his own familiar past and the flying of a homemade kite that Sam made for him.It is the kite that provides Hally with the defin-ing moment of his young life a black man and a young white boy enjoying each other's company and a shared accomplishment. Hally says, Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know how to describe it, Sam Ja! The miracle happened! Ã¢â¬ Hally appears to want to return to the safety of their shared past when he mentions to Sam tha t Ã¢â¬Å"[I]t's time for another one, you know. Ã¢â¬ The uncertainties of adolescence challenge Hally's place, not only in the world at large but in his family as well. Of his time spent with Sam he summarizes: Ã¢â¬Å"It's just that life felt the right size in there. . . ot too big and not too small. Wasn't so hard to work up a bit of courage. It's got so bloody complicated since then. Ã¢â¬Å"Hally's violent reaction to the news that his father is indeed returning home (the stage directions describe Hally as Ã¢â¬Å"seething with irritation and frustrationÃ¢â¬ ) clearly illustrate the complications Hally must now face. Ã¢â¬Å"Just when things are going along all right, without fail someone or something will come along and spoil everything. Somebody should write that down as a fundamental law of the Universe The principle of perpetual disappoint-mentÃ¢â¬ Hally's attack on Willie's backside WIth a ruler and the Ã¢â¬Å"I? llow? you? a? little? freedom? and-? what? do? you? do? w ith? ItÃ¢â¬ speech show that Hally resists acknowledging the changes and accompany-ing complications that will inevitably take place when his father returns home. In the ensuing ballroom dancing discussion (Fugard himself was a dancing champion in his teens), Sam describes the dance finals Ã¢â¬Å"like being in a dream about a world in which accidents don't happen. Ã¢â¬ Sam's view of the world as dance floor contrasts sharply With Hally's nostalgic view of life as the right size in the old Jubilee Boarding house. Hally wants things to remain static, to never change.Sam, on the other hand, wants the world Ã¢â¬Å"to dance like champions instead of always being a bunch of beginners at it. Ã¢â¬ There are no collisions in Sam's view because the participants have discovered ways of moving around the dance floor without bumping into one another; symbolically, this is Sam's hope that the world can live together peacefully without prejudice or inequality. Hally appears momentarily co nvinced at the end of this discussion: Ã¢â¬Å"We mustn't despair. Maybe there is hope for mankind after all. Ã¢â¬ But then the phone rings and Hally's world shatters with the news that his mother will be ringing his father home. At this point, Hally's demeanor becomes Ã¢â¬Å"viciousÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"desperate,Ã¢â¬ and at the end of the conversation Hally is Ã¢â¬Å"desolate. Ã¢â¬ He slams books and smashes the bottle of brandy his mother had told him to get for his father. With reckless words and ugly laughter, Hally mocks his crippled father, insinuating him into the dance metaphor as the ones who are Ã¢â¬Å"out there tripping up everybody and trying to get into the act. Ã¢â¬ His childhood world is now smashed beyond recognition as Hally swears at Sam and chastises him for meddling in something he knows nothing about.Hally's adolescent posturing leads him to de-mand that Sam call him Ã¢â¬Å"Master Harold, like Willie [does]. Ã¢â¬ Because he cannot control the events sur-rounding his father's homecoming, Hally lashes out at the convenient targets of Willie and Sam, people he feels he can control. The youth's petulance manifests itself with a vengeance. Hally lets fly with a racist comment and compounds the ugliness of the offense by insisting that it is a Ã¢â¬Å"bloody good joke. Ã¢â¬ Hally's final act of naked cruelty is to spit in Sam's face. For Hally, the bond with Sam is forever broken.The demarcation between master and ser-vant is clearly defined. Although sorely tempted to repay violence with violence, Sam remains the gentle father, the true friend, the moral teacher. Having removed the symbol of servitude (the white servant's jacket) that distinguishes him as a Ã¢â¬Å"boy,Ã¢â¬ Sam presents the personal rather than political response to Hally's indignities? an extended hand and the offer to try again and Ã¢â¬Å"fly another kite. Ã¢â¬ But Hally has shamed himself beyond compassion and cannot respond to Sam's final lesson.Errol Dur bach wrote in Modern Drama that the final dramatic images? he rain of despair, the wind where no kites fly, the hopelessness of rela-tionships ripped apart by racist attitudes, the com-forting music that elicits compassion for children who are a victims of their own upbringing, and Ã¢â¬Å"the image of a world where Ã¢â¬ËWhites Only' leave two black men dancing together in an act of solidari-tyÃ¢â¬ ? represent Fugard's movement between hope and despair, qualified only by the realization that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËMaster Harold' grows up to be Athol Fugard and that the play itself is an act of atonement to the memory of Sam and Ã¢â¬ËH. D. F. [Harold David Fugard]? the Black and White fathers to whom [the play] is dedicated. Ã¢â¬Å"So, then, back the original question? what is the play about if not political struggle? It is a play about fathers and sons, and how those roles can be both supportive and destructive. It is a play that illustrates how relationships can be strained by factors beyond the participants. It is a play that offers suggestions and gestures for forgiveness and compassion. It is a play ultimately about race. Not black, or white, or red, or yellow, or brown, but human. Master Harold and the Boys In the play Master Harold and the boys, the telephone is a very significant symbol. It acts as a scene changer, as well as a mood changer the most for one particular character, Hally. In this summary, I will briefly describe a few instances throughout the play where the telephone is described, and the effects it has on the characters. In the beginning, Hally, a young white man arrives at his mother and fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant where he is greeted by two black Ã¢â¬Å"servants. Ã¢â¬ One of the Ã¢â¬Å"servantsÃ¢â¬ , Sam informs Hally that his mom had phoned for him about a half an hour ago.HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mood immediately changed from happy/content to nervousness/worry. Hally seemed to know that when his mother called, it was for good reason. Hally began pestering Sam with questions about the phone call. He wanted to know where his mother called from, what she called for and how long ago it was that she called. Sam explained that his mother had told him that she was bringing his f ather home from the hospital. Hally then became even more worried and tried to accuse Sam of lying. There was no way HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was bringing his father home from the hospital, because he was still too sick.He then tried to call his mother at home, but there was no answer. This made Hally contemplate if the news could be true. As the two servants went back to work, Hally stood alone in confusion and worry. All he could seem to do is think about what this news means, and how it will affect him. RingÃ¢â¬ ¦ringÃ¢â¬ ¦ring. Sam answers the phone while Hally stops his train of thought. He is listening and holding on to every word Sam says. This telephone call acts as a scene changer and also a mood changer for Hally and the servants; they all stop what they are doing to find out what is happening.Hally relates the phone ringing to something bad happening. Sam tells Hally that it is his mother on the phone for him. In worry Hally asks if the call is local or private, almost as if he is preparing his speech to his mother. Once Hally musters up the courage to speak on the phone, Hally finds out that the news is true; HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s father is asking to come home. Shocked, he cannot believe what he is hearing. He becomes angry with his mother, demanding that she make him stay at the hospital. But you know that Hally doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really seem to care how his dad is feeling, he just doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ant him back home. HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mom agreed to try to keep his father at the hospital, but she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t making any promises, HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s father was acting too persistent with his decision. HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother told him that she would call him back. After he hung up the phone, he was in complete shock. All he could do was stare at the telephone as Sam and Willie began bombarding him with questions. Hally had told them that Sam was right and his father wanted to come home. HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mood changed to anger after that phone call.He kept going back and forth across the restaurant saying what kind of a mess this was going to make for him. He even got so angry about this news, that he began ordering same and Willie around, telling them to quit fooling around and to get back to work. As the servants obeyed his command, all Hally could do is pace back and forth through the restaurant and wait for that next phone call. Then, finallyÃ¢â¬ ¦ringÃ¢â¬ ¦ringÃ¢â¬ ¦ring. Hally took a lot longer to answer the phone this time. Sam even had to remind him not to keep his mother waiting.HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mom was calling from home this time. She told her son that his father was home. Infuriated, Hally scolded his mother, asking her why she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop him and why she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make him stay. He went on to tell his mom that he had an exam coming up, and how could he focus on that when his father is home causing trouble. HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s mom tells him that his father wanted to speak with him. HallyÃ¢â¬â¢s tone immediately changed when he spoke w ith his father. He sounded happy to speak with him, asking him how he was feeling. He also told his father that he was happy that he was home.After he hung up the phone he went right back to being angry. He acted like he was so much more superior to the black servants, walking around telling them what to do. In conclusion, the telephone was a very important symbol in the play Master Harold and the boys. Every time the phone rang, it changed all of the characters mood. Although the telephone acted like more of symbol to Hally, it did affect all the characters. Each time the telephone rang, HalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mood grew more nervous and more angry. He related the telephone ringing to anger, worry and frustration
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The The Shame of Family Films In the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Shame of Family FilmsÃ¢â¬ the author, Julia Baird, discusses how there is a lack of female heroines or female main characters in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies. She then goes on to describe a study done by Stacy Smith and Marc Choueiti at the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California, who analyzed 122 family films, including the fifty top-grossing ones during the years 2006 to 2009, ranging from G to PG-13. In the study they found that 29. 2 percent of the characters were female.They also found that one in four characters were portrayed Ã¢â¬Å"sexy, tight, or alluring attireÃ¢â¬ , which was compared to one in twenty-five male characters. The author then went on discuss how many women were found behind all these childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies. She referred to a study called The Annenburg Study that was commissioned by Geena Davis Institute and it found that the percentage of animators who were female, the percentage of women who form crowd scenes in family films, and the percentage of female narrators were all seventeen percent. Related article: Shame is Worth a Try SummaryThis article made me think back to the movies I watched as a child and I realized that a lot of those movies were also sexist. Many of the movies were and are made with traditional gender roles set in them. They portrayed a feeble main female character that was saved by a strong male character or a main character was a very strong minded male who was assisted by a female sidekick. I agree with Baird that there is a lack of heroines in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies. Many children may continue to follow the traditional gender roles because of the movies they watch.Boys will think that they are suppose to be strong, powerful, and intelligent and the girls will think that they have to be weak and that even if they are strong and have power, a male will always have more power. I would like to see more female characters in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies not abiding by the traditional gender roles because I think little girls should know that they can give boys a run for their money when it comes to becoming strong and powerful. I grew up with the traditional gender roles and I hated that I had to.I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like when my brothers and I would play Ã¢â¬Å"doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s officeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"schoolÃ¢â¬ , I had to be the nurse or teacher when they were able to be the doctor or principal. It made me feel like I was second best compared to them and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think any little girl should feel the way I used to feel. Every child should feel like they can become whatever he or she wants and should not limit themselves because of the gender roles many are taught as a child. Reference: http://www. newsweek. com/2010/09/22/why-family-films-are-so-sexist. html
Monday, July 29, 2019
Analytical frameworks - Essay Example The PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is known as the Ã¢â¬ËPorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces MethodÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Boone (2012), porterÃ¢â¬â¢s theory states that a business should consider five aspects to maintain a competitive edge on a given industry. The five forces include: threat of substitute products; threat of new entrants; bargaining power of consumers; threat of established rivalries; and, bargaining power of suppliers. Porter provides that an industry which is characterized by low-entry and high-exit barriers is likely to suffer from decreasing profits in the long-run. In this regards, a firm that is intending to maintain high profits in the long run should choose that industry that is associated with high-entry and low-exit barriers. In relation to substitute products, Nour (2013) provides that availability of similar products enhance the chances of a buyer switching to other goods and services. Porter emphasize that attention should be paid to quality and price as far as an industry that is characterized by substitute products is concerned. An industry that has a few firms relative to the number of suppliers is likely to experience a low price of raw materials and other inputs. The ratio of buyers to firms in an industry affects the profitability of a given industry. Loyalty and other practices are employed to reduce the influence of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ bargaining power (Alter, 2000). In regards to established firms rivalry, a firm should consider innovation and other effective business strategies to maintain a competitive edge relative other firms. In order to test the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model, a case study of a bakery firm known as Hrstic, trading in Croatia, would be analyzed. An analysis was performed to find out the future of small bakery businesses operating in Croatia. This is due to the fact that there are 374 small sized firms in relation to 8 medium and 2 large bakery companies. In addition, it is reportedly that approximately 2,500 bakery firms
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Discuss the two major approaches to stress management. Identify and describe one example of each strategy - Essay Example This approach is not encouraged since it creates a vicious cycle of stress, which leads to usage of more medication and ultimately more psychological deterioration. The non-medical approach takes care of three components, the body, the spirit, and the mind. It is a holistic approach and ensures that all aspects of the stressed individual are treated starting from identifying the source of stress, the extent, or severity of stress and ultimately taking charge or control of the problem. The various techniques used include psychotherapy where an individual undergoes sessions of counseling in order to restore positivity encouragement and hope during tough times. Other natural alternatives include aromatherapy, homeopathy, massaging, and reflexology. In addition, positive self-talk, making time for fun for the stressed individuals, relaxation, exercise, and healthy feeding habits are other alternatives. Worth noting, different people respond differently to stress and there is no classical or single method for all. People are therefore encouraged to experiment the different available strategies of stress
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Assignment from the book understanding human communication - Case Study Example These differences created concerns for me as I undermined his cultural values and expected him to act as per my cultural values. I think our relationship has acquired the stage of differentiating. As both of us shared close friendship therefore, we both want to keep a pace now. Although, Hideki didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show such emotions but his culture bound nature has created distances amongst us. Now that both of us have gained the commonalty, we need to reemphasize on our individual identities. Differentiation had to occur as HidekiÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior started disturbing me and I tended to avoid him despite of his kind nature. Hideki, bound by his culture, was too reserved to let me know about him, and that made me feel frustrated. The dialectic tensions operating in our relationship are of two types. Both of us do not want to forfeit our individualities. My own behavior shows a conflicting wish for staying connected as well as being independent. The other dialect tension encircling our relation is Ã¢â¬Å"openness vs. privacyÃ¢â¬ . As disclosure is one of the essentials of interpersonal relationships, but keeping a space between ourselves and others is also necessary. This leads to the creation of openness vs. privacy dilemma. Hideki belong to Japanese culture which is quite different from mine. Therefore, he may limit himself in disclosing as in his case self disclosure could be influenced by culture and it may occur incrementally. However, the guidelines suggest that as I am engaging myself in business partnership with Hideki, his disclosure to a reasonable degree is important to me at the situation at hand. The clear and understandable disclosure by both the parties is constructive in the long run. Hinting could be used as an alternative to self disclosure in this situation (Adler, Rodman & Cropley, 2011). Tempestuous, Scorching, arid, misty and story weather related adjectives could be used to describe
Friday, July 26, 2019
Compensation Laws and Legislation - Research Paper Example Some laws also protect the employers by getting rid of liability of co-workers in most accidents, and by limiting the amount an injured employee can be paid. There is the Federal EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Compensation Act, specific to federal employees only, and there are workersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation acts established by each State. WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation act ensures employees get their benefits through three main programs; Medical treatment, wage replacement, and vocational rehabilitation. Each of these programs is specific to each state (United States Department of Labor). These are payments made by a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance company to an injured or sick employee to cure or relieve the effects of the disease or injury. The insurance company is mandated to make payments for medical treatment. The employee, however, can get compensation benefits for a workplace related injury. There are also compensations to disabilities arising from injuries or illnesses obtained from the workplace. An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s dependents are also eligible for compensation benefits in case of work related deaths (Lozano v. Archer). A case illustrating workerÃ¢â¬â¢s medical compensation benefit is Maril Be Van, v. Liberty Northwest Insurance Corporation. Be Van worked for Blackfoot Telephone Communications. The company provided for a paid fifteen minute break in the morning, a paid fifteen minute break in the afternoon, and an unpaid one hour lunch break. Be Van got an accident one day when she took an early 15 minutes paid break, and went home. Due to this early break, her break was disputed to be within working hours; therefore, the employer and the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s insurer denied her compensations. It was, however, established that Be Van was to have an early afternoon meeting that day, which would take the time required for her to have her lunch break. It was also established that she went for an early fifteen minute break because of the scheduled meeting at her lunch break. She sought
Thursday, July 25, 2019
African American Studies - Essay Example While this long term outcome was the same for both men, they differed greatly in the way that they went about turning their ideas into action. Martin Luther King started out as a preacher with a purely religious set of goals. He followed in his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition, ministering to his own people in his own church and confining himself to religious teachings. Increasing violence against his congregation, and widespread atrocities in the southern states prompted him to change his position to a more political one, however and he became known for his commitment to non-violent political action. He supported bus boycotts, sit-ins, demonstrations and the famous march in Washington, and in word and deed he called black Americans to rise up and join together in resistance, but stopped short of any proactive acts of violence or even retaliation in the face of violence. In his most famous Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech to a mostly black audience, he used his considerable talents as a public speaker to paint a future vision of an Alabama, the heart of the currently racist south where Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ little black boys and blac k girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.Ã¢â¬ (Luther King, 1963a) Using imagery drawn from the Bible he deliberately included white people in this vision, and stressed the unity of all people, male and female, black and white, rich and poor, depicting them as being in chains while they participate in this unjust society, and Ã¢â¬Å"free at lastÃ¢â¬ (Luther King, 1963a) when slaves and oppressor together can enjoy equal rights. By advocating peaceful resistance, he managed to retain the moral high ground, and by stressing the common Christian religion and culture of the majority of blacks and whites in America, he sought to build trust and tackle instances of oppression one by
Fitness Movement in the USA - Assignment Example Several fitness businesses ranging from small storefronts to multipurpose clubs, women-only bastions to muscle gyms dotted the sporting landscape. Stand-alone clubs donated the industry until the twentieth century when the industry was transformed by the large centrally owned chains. According to Costa & Guthrie (1994), the last decade of the twentieth century was depicted by the formation of Ã¢â¬Å"ChandlerianÃ¢â¬ core, a contrast to the peripheral industry. The fitness movement thrived successfully in an environment that gifted collective individualism; an environment where the labor of public exercise initiated individual virtue. The shifting gender relations and the interest of women and men in molding a fit toned but healthy body were the founding issues of the movement (Costa & Guthrie, 1994). Ã In conclusion, the fitness movement focused on health and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to building self-esteem. The movement serves a positive and vital need while focussing on profits from people and depend on insecurities and the desire to have a glimpse at commercially constructed images of aesthetic value. The images of beauty taking the form of fitness in hyper-competitive, zero-sum, winner-take-all environment with an evanescent mirage security lead to deteriorating human happiness.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Advertising and promotion strategies of three different companies in the cosmetic industry - Essay Example Advertising and promotion strategies of three different companies in the cosmetic industry The major strategy behind the advertising campaigns of the group is to highlight the brand in each and every product. The strategy is that it relates its product line to those individuals who deserves the best and is cautious about the beauty products they use. It advertises its products as premium priced but believes to deliver the best quality cosmetic products. It uses several communication or media channels and highlights is growth over the years to its customers. Apart from the advertising strategies of its newly launched products the company also undertakes promotional strategies through various forms such as using in-store promotions in retail outlets, direct marketing to YouTube and through bloggers, promotions through contests in the form of digital contest in Facebook and Instagram, and even given an opportunity to the customers to customize their products in terms of size and smell so as to associate with the customers easily. The main strategy behind the promotions is to reach out to large consumer market section. The company even incorporates many celebrity endorsements in its product advertisement. The major strength of its advertisement and promotional techniques is that it helps to trigger in the consumer mind the brand name; it helps to create a niche market in the industry and also strengthens its brand. The weakness of the strategies is that it focuses on premium segment of the market and loses behind the vast section of the middle income group of the market.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Environmental Sustainability and Triple Bottom Line - Assignment Example I think we are really exceeding our natural resources, which is also harming environmental sustainability. The population of earth has grown largely while affecting the balance between human consumption and natural resources. At present, there is no proper mechanism to sustain the growth rate of the human population. Although the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population has always been increasing during the last 35 years or so, a major increase has occurred in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population giving rise to many problems, such as inadequate water supplies, increased deforestation, increased urbanization, dying rivers and lakes, and depletion of natural resources. The world is facing a global ecological crisis presently because humans are living in a way that is diminishing the capacity of the earth to sustain life. The ecological imbalance is occurring because the carrying capacity of the earth is becoming unable to support life. If we compare the ecological footprints of developed and poor countries, we come to know that developed countries usually have a higher footprint as compared to the ecological footprint of poor countries. For example, the ecological footprint of the United States is 12.22, whereas, for Pakistan, which is an underdeveloped country, the figure is 1.09 which is very low (Global Environment Stats n.p.). These figures show that there is a huge difference between the sustainability level of highly developed and underdeveloped countries. Section 2 Question 4: What is the triple bottom line? With what important concept is it associated? Be sure to describe each of the three parts. Answer 4: Bottom line is actually a measure of sustainability that includes the calculations of social, economic, and environmental conditions of any particular area. Organizations and not-for-profit organizations also usually use triple bottom line sustainability framework to measure their performances and to do required improvements based on the analysis (Slaper and Hall).Ã Ã Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Requirements of Quartz Sand Making Machine Essay Quartz crusher is crushing machine used for quartz sand, glass production line. SBM provides quartz crushers, gravel crushers for quartz crushing, grinding. The quartzite principal constituent may be the quartz, such as ceramics, cement, glass, the optical fiber and so forth. A very large amount associated with quartz, which prompted the establishment of a lot of quartz quarry. Quartz sand is the important artificial sand used in construction building. In quartzite quarry, we can use quartz crushing plant for crushing quartz stone, The most typical quartz quarry is processes the actual quartz into quartz sand, quartz sand quality directly affect the earnings of quartz quarry, so the quartz sand making machine requirements are extremely high, usually quartz crusher manufacturing quality low, this quartz fine sand price is low, but affects the quartz sand quality the main cause is the quartz fine sand production lineÃ¢â¬â¢s craft, our company was engaged within the quartz sand production line design already to possess more than 30 years, experienced the rich experience, the common granularity unqualified phenomenon proposed because of the quartz sand production process within the close up stone sand manufacturing line, this kind of production collection use sand making machine and also the vibrating screen formed a shut path, might the effective answer stone sand quality question. The first step of processing begins after the extraction from quarry or pit. Many of these steps also are common to recycled materials, clay, and other manufactured aggregates. The first stage in most operations is the reduction and sizing by crushing. Some operations, however, provide a step prior to crushing called scalping. Scalping most often is used to divert fines at a jaw primary crusher in order to improve crusher efficiency. In this way the very coarse portion is crushed and then recombined with the portion of crusher-run material before further processing. This first step may, however, be an excellent time to improve a deleterious problem. If a deleterious or fines problem exists in the finer fraction of crusher-run material (namely, clay, shale, finely weathered material, etc. ) the fall-through of the scalping operation may be totally or partially diverted and wasted, or may be made into a product of lesser quality. In any case, only acceptable amounts, if any, should be returned back into the higher quality product. Consideration of process variables in this early stage may be very important.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Impact of internet and mobile phone Impact of internet and mobile phone on our life and the life of future generations The communication technology has become one of the important technologies in the last thirty years of the late of the twentieth century. The communications Technology industry is still grow significantly. Also, it is likely to increase growth in the coming years. There are several definitions of communication technology and one of them follows: the World Bank defines CT as Ã¢â¬Å"the set of activities which facilitate by electronic means the processing, transmission and display of informationÃ¢â¬ (Cairncross, 1998). In addition there are many types of communication technology. Such as, mobile phone, internet and telephone landlines, etc. The communication technology has evolved to become a tool to link all the countries in the world. In addition, the world has become small village by this technique. In fact, people can see any event in the world on TV, because the satellite is available in most countries. Although this growth increasing worries for future generation of the dangerous of this technology on them, because, this technique also includes the benefits and drawbacks. In this paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages two types of communications technology the internet and mobile phone on our health, education and relationship. Then, it will explain how should concern for the future of our grandchildren from this technique. Introduction on internet: There is a significant increase in the use of the internet by people in the beginning of the twenty-first century compared with year 1990. In January 1990 About 188,000 Core Internet users and approximately 3,400,000 Electronic mail users, whereas the forecast in January 2000 almost 254,000,000 Core Internet users and nearly 827,000,000 Electronic mail users (Cairncross, 1998). For instance (There is) a large use in email-health information by most hospitals. Also, some government agencies are providing high quality information for health care in hospitals and clinics to help patients to make appointments, as well as access to an appropriate decision in the selection of health services. Such as in the United Kingdom people can get an appointment and chose physicians by using internet (Stewart, 2000). In addition the internet has a major impact on performance of hospitals and revenue collection. Nowadays the internet has connected employments and consultants in majority of countries each other, to share some consulting and cooperation in the field of health. For example a doctor in India can request some consultations from doctors in the U.S.A or France by internet. Benefits of mobile phone on health: With regards to mobile phones they have enabled people to keep in touch anywhere at any time. For example, nowadays people can contact the hospitals and ambulance at any time and at anywhere. For instance, if there is an accident, people able to communicate an ambulance immediately by mobile phone to rescue the injured. The second example if somebody has an appointment he can delay or cancel that time by mobile phone from anywhere. Impact of mobile phone on health: However, the mobile phone has impacted on our health. In hospitals the signals emitted by mobile phone can interfere with sensitive electronic devices. For instance, in the hospitals there are signs warning of the use of mobile phone must switch off. In addition when people use the mobile phone for a long time, the temperature of the ear and the area around it is slightly higher, because that signals which emitted from the mobile phone. According to Scottish Executive claims that, Ã¢â¬Å"It is possible to measure how much radio wave energy your body receives from each model of mobile phone. This is called the specific an absorption rate or SARÃ¢â¬ (Stewart, 2000). Also a new study in Finland found that the effects of radiation emanating from mobile phone on human cells rather than those rats. In this for a period for two years of research found that the radiation emitted from mobile phone damage the blood brain barrier. Benefits of internet on education: As it can be seen from the above comments communication technology has increased so dramatically, that it has benefited our lives considerably. As a result, the continuing evolution of online world has also had a positive effect on education. For example, internet is widely used to connect teachers with students and speak to them and give people lectures online. According to (Ko Rossen, 2008) described how the internet has been used to emulate classroom discussions, to support students understanding and retention of taught materials. In addition, large numbers of students around the world focus their attention on the use of the internet and there is a supporting factor in their success in the study. For example by E-mail, students can send each other and have access to what they need and as soon as the largest amount of information. In the same way, teaching online takes a short time to be done (Ko Rossen, 2008). online learning provides the teacher a lot of comfort, and freedom for students as well. Bartering of this method, the professor is not required to take hid bag full of papers to classroom, and stand at the lecture with student for hours to explain his lesson. Benefits mobile in education: In the same way, the mobile phone has enabled both teachers and students to keep in touch and help them deal with class problems, discuss assignments, and make plan for study. Moreover, mobile phone is used to help student and other people to obtain important notice which they need. According to Koreas Suk Myoung University stats that, students use the phone to confirm their attendance and enable them to enter the libraries, also to buy some of food from school canteen by a quicker time are easier way(Ko Rossen, 2008). Drawback of internet on education: On the other hand, communication technologies have also negative impacts on our life. More and more, teachers are using the internet in their classroom, so internet has several disadvantages effect on learning. Firstly, in universities some professors use E-mail or websites to download their lecture for student without explain, therefore some students do not understand the lesson especially in scientific subjects and practical materials. Furthermore, scientists can loss the interpersonal skills and the lesson can be done without gestures and movements which add to the science experiment. Secondly, some schools the main factor in educational process is the educator, who have clarify not just how information communication technology works, but, also how young people connect to this tool at home, as well as in the school. It is the teacher who is a responsible to learn children and created their scientific skills rather than using internet. Benefits of internet on relationships: With the regards to the benefits of Internet on relationship, it can be said that the internet has recently become the first modern technique spread in all countries of the world. Also, it has become all segments of society continue through the sites for chat, such as yahoo messenger and Skype. Indeed the internet users every day exposed to configure a new relationship with others. Nowadays the online romantic relationship on internet has spread dramatically, as a result of participation in the chat rooms. By the year 2007, equivalent to 3.3 billion mobile phone users in the world, because the mobile phone has become an integral part of daily life for humans (Cooltech, 2009). In addition the main motive for buying a mobile phone which is the desire of buyers to communicate and social cohesion. For example people use their mobile phone to connect with their families and friends, as well as manage their business. Moreover through the internet and mobile phone communication between the developing countries and the developed countries has become very easy. Negatives the mobile phone internet on relationships On the other hand, the studies suggest that the mobile phone has a negative impact on the balance between work and life. Also, some companies and employers prevent the employees the use of mobile phone, Such as HSBC Bank and Lloyds TSB bank in the United Kingdom. (Monthathip Panos, 2009). Although the internet has advantages, the internet has some disadvantages. Use the internet impact on the amount of time spent by a person with family and friends. Children and young people are more likely than others to use the internet has reduced the time spent with family and friends. In addition the use of internet altered the amount of time spent by a person in the amusements of other, such as TV viewing, reading, sport and social outings (Monthathip Panos, 2009). Impact the communication technology on Generation This rapid development in communication technology has increased concern for our future generation. If there are adverse health effects of mobile phone use is not clear at this time. Although if there is any side effect will be more severely affected on children, because their nervous system still continues to grow. It will be affected tissues of the head for more energy, especially with the length of exposure. It is believe that the diffusion of mobile phone use by children should be avoided especially for non-essential. Also Still mobile technology is relatively new. This is why the scientists and researchers in all over the world are conducting studies and research in an attempt to understand the effects of this small device.
HM Analysis: Ansoff Matrix, Five Forces and PEST H and M is a Swedish worldwide company which operates in the fashion sector. Its main competitors are INDITEX, GAR and Arcadian Group. The firm offer fashion cheap quality products on more than 2000 stores placed in 37 countries including Europe, Asia, North America and Middle East. It tries to adapt their products and their business model to the new market to facilitate the entry in a different cultural market country. The company has a strong corporate social responsibility concept and is involved in community and environmental projects; however it has been criticized due to several scandals. Despite of the economic crisis which causes a huge drop in the consumption and therefore in the fashion spending; HM thanks to its policy of low prices is still a quite strong company and has a good financial reputation as its results and ratios show us. The profitability of this company is due to the coast leader strategy that it has followed, focused on the outsourcing of the manufacturing process to countries with low labour costs, which allows HM to sell cheap products and obtain high profits. Also the blame for this business successful is the differentiation strategy that they have developed with the help of celebrities and famous designers lines. Introduction to the company HM (Hennes Mauritz) is an internationally famous company which operates in the fashion industry and besides it also markets cosmetics and accessories. It was founded in Sweden in 1947 by Erling Pearson. In order to know its market share, we must say that in 2009, sales including VAT reached SEK 118,697 millions; furthermore, the number of employees is around 76,000Ã Ã . Geographical markets The company has around 2000 stores in 37 countries worldwide, specifically in the European, Asiatic, North American and Middle East market. Germany represents the biggest market with the 25% of HMs total shares, followed by United Kingdom and Sweden. As curiosity we can say that Glasgow has 7 HMs stores. Related to the importance that online selling has nowadays, this service is now available in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Germany, Austria and UK.Ã Ã Brands and products HM Group includes the brands COS, Monki, Weekday, Cheap Monday and HM home. The firm designs cheap yet chic clothing, offering this to the different segment markets (ladies, men and kids). Mission, values and goals HM describes its mission as Fashion and quality at the best price. In connection to the values, this company is driven by simplicity, continuous, improvement, team spirit, cost-consciousness and entrepreneurship. A sentence that can summarize HM values is the slogan We believe in people. Finally, HM goals are to intensify the sales in the existing stores, as well as, to increase the number of new stores by a net 10% to 15% per year. Expansion and maintaining of financial stability are HMs strategic goals. The growth, which is fully self-financed, will proceed with an emphasis on quality and continued high profitability.Ã Ã Corporate Social Responsibility The company guarantees that its products are manufactured under good conditions. According to Karl-Johan Persson (CEO at HM) Being responsible is not only the right thing to do, it makes perfect business sense. (HM 2010) According to the HM 2009 Annual Report, HM acts in many markets as both a buyer and a seller. This requires HM to act responsibly and in a sustainable way with respect to the environment and social responsibility.Ã Ã HM is very concerned with the supply chain working conditions, so because of that its very careful choosing the countries for the production and it also imposes a strict Code of ConductÃ Ã to its suppliers. Around sixty auditors works checking that this Code is being respected The company has environmental requirements on suppliers, as a clean production chain, green transport and sustainability policy and vision by sustainable use of resources and healthy products like the organic cotton. According to projects and cooperation, HM has developed community activities, like education and employment of woman and youth, water and innovation of sustainable textile materials. Also the company has collaborated such as UNICEF and WaterAidÃ Ã . Furthermore, HM reports activities and progress on its sustainability programmes annually.Ã Ã However, HM has starred in several scandals, for instance because they discarded bags of unwanted clothes outside HMS store in New York. These clothes could have been used by needy families in case not to have been intentionally damaged to avoid re-use. Besides, in March 2010, the company was criticized by pro-Palestinian groups for opening its first stores in Israel at the time when the UN Goldstone report highlighted Israels alleged violations of international law. C:UserspelegriÃ ±Pictureshm protesta palestina.jpg Furthermore, the German edition of the Financial Times newspaper has uncovered an alleged organic cotton fraud by European brands HM, CA, and Tchibo (Treehugger 2010) 2. External Environment To seek the main factors impacting on the industry attractiveness and on the environmental stability for HM Im going to use the study of competitors and the PEST analysis. 2.1 Competitors HMs main competitors in the most important markets are (Hoovers 2010): COMPANY COUNTRY BRANDS INDITEX Spain Zara, Oysho, Massimo Dutti, Pull Bear, Stradivarius, Zara Home and UterqÃ ¼e GAP United States GAP, Banana Republic, Budgeteer Old Navy ARCADIA GROUP United Kingdom BHS, Dorothy Perkins, Miss Selfridge, Wallis, Topshop, Evans, Burton and Topman 2.2 Pest Analysis POLITICAL: HM is a Swedish brand so it has to follow the Swedish legislation, but also the laws of each country where it has establishments, for instance, in UK: The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 which implement the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive in the UK. The Enterprise Act 2002 which has wide-ranging implications for businesses and consumers. The Electronic Commerce Regulations 2002 includes the information that the company must share with online customers and regulates advertising. Distance Selling Regulations 2000: these laws are aimed at businesses that sell goods or services to consumers by the internet, mail order, phone or fax. The Competition Act 1998 which forbid certain types of anti-competitive behaviour. Its also remarkable that in 2009 the Swedish corporate tax rate was reduced to 26.3 from its previous level of 28%. Trading agreements: most of the HM business is located in EU countries -such as Germany and the UK- without custom duties. ECONOMIC: Although the GDP dropped because of the crisis, it has increased by the 1.2% in the second quarter 2010.Ã Ã Since March the 5th 2009, the official bank rate is placed in 0.5%Ã Ã , because of that the investment cost is low. Consumer spending on clothing rose by just 10%Ã Ã between 2004 and 2008, well below the 19.2% increase in overall consumer expenditure during this period. Even though 2009 has been characterized by deflation, the inflation rate is again positive (1.14 in September 2010)Ã Ã . That is to say the demand is starting to rise. SOCIAL Due to the social and environmental conscience, HM has to adapt its policy and products to the new customer awareness. Fashion is more and more interesting for young people and that is the reason why this consumer group spends a high part of its incomes on clothes. Customers seem to prefer customized garments. These kinds of products are supplied generally by online sellers but can represent a competence. Fast changing fashion styles make the designers to be ready for a reply. HM is operating in Middle East and in Asia, therefore it should take into account the social and cultural differences (religion, language or roles of men and women in the society) TECHNOLOGICAL: Technology to make clothing: more updated machines are necessary to accomplish certain colours and patterns. The development of media technology and the internet will make HM popularity to rise. Online selling, available now in seven markets 3. HM financial performance To know HMs financial situation I am going to make an analysis of the most important financial variables and also to compare them with Zara and Primarks ones. Sales per year UK is HMs fourth largest market, contributing 6.4% of its turnover (Mintel 2010). 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 SALES (Ã £) 400472 448583 527534 524531 565889 CHANGES IN SALES (%) 8,0986533 12,013574 17,600087 -0,569252 7,884758Ã Ã In 2008, due to the financial crisis, UK suffered a huge drop in the GDP and in the consumption, for example the household clothing expenditure was 21,60 Ã £ per week and in 2003 it was 27 Ã £.Ã Ã At the end of May 2010, sales rose by 15% due to the fact that 10 new stores opened. and at the end of May 2010, sales rose by 15% due to the fact that 10 new stores opened and at the end of May 2010, sales rose by 15% due to the fact that 10 new stores opened 14 In the previous graphic, we can see Primark has a bigger market share and besides it could profit of its low prices in the crisis, gaining ground to its competitors. Zaras turnover is lower than HM. Operating profit It has not followed any trend for the last five years, it has fluctuated depending on the year. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 PROFIT (Ã £) 44260 62013 53041 8767 10576 CHANGES IN PROFIT (%) -2,906658 40,1107094 -14,46793 -83,47128 20,634196Ã Ã In the previous table, the most notable thing is the sharp decline that the operating profit had in 2008. The causes are the increase in selling and administrative costs. According to the 2008 Annual Report this is mainly due to an increased cost level relating to reinforcement of the organization in preparation for the long-term investment in store expansion, Internet and catalogue sales and new initiatives. 16 As we can see in this comparative chart, the three companies operating profit has followed a similar tendency with an important drop in 2008. We can also notice that Zaras operating profit in UK moves in negative numbers. Liquidity Analyzing the following table, we can conclude that HM has a healthy financial position, because in general to have a current ratio higher than 1,5 is a good sign, even more if its a fashion retail company. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 CURRENT RATIO 1.76 1.77 1.4 2.4 1.83Ã Ã The liquidity or acid test ratio shows how liquid the company is relative to short-term liabilities. Stock is excluded as it can take months to turn into cash. As its higher than 1, we can say that the liquid assets exceed the current liabilities. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 LIQUIDITY RATIO 0.97 0.96 0.88 1.77 1.22Ã Ã It can be said that HM has sufficient money available to meet its short-term commitments. Thanks to the next graphic we can conclude that in liquidity terms Primark can have problems because its current ratio is always under 0,5. 19 Solvency 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 GEARING RATIO 34.61 81.82 110.09 52.24 51.12Ã Ã The gearing ratio measures the proportion of the companys total capital that is borrowed. The higher the gearing ratio is, the bigger the proportion of the companies money that is borrowed and therefore the bigger the risk. In 2007 the ratio obtained was worrying because the loan capital was higher than the capital employed. This was due to the heavy investment that HM was doing in its international expansion and in new initiatives. 21 The chart shows us that Primark has solvency problems so it could have problems if interest rates are going up. On the other hand, Zara is solvent. Investment In this paragraph I have used the ROCE (Return on capital employed) which measures whether or not a company is generating adequate profits in relation to the funds invested in it and is a key indicator of investment performance. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 ROCE 63.1 82.06 69.44 7.43 6.16Ã Ã In retail lower figures would be experienced, ranging between 5% and 15% and in the last two years, is where HM is placed. We can see that this ratio had a sharp drop in 2008 but before this year this company was extremely profitable. 23 Primark is the best performance in this area and Zara has seriously problems above all caused by the negative numbers in its profits. 4. Competitive strategy 4.1 Porters five forces analysis In this paragraph, Im going to use Porters five forces analysis to determine the intensity of competition and profitability that can be expected in the fashion retail sector. C:UserspelegriÃ ±Picturesporters-five-forces-model.jpgÃ Ã Threat of new entrants UK market is not saturated There are not barriers to entry in distribution due to the low capital required to open a new store. However, in manufacturing there are important barriers to entry due to the scales economies and to the high investment capital required. Fashion products have a high margin. Threat of substitute products For the fashion sector we must talk about replacing brands, not products. There are a lot of fashion retailers in the market which HM is present. Besides, the demand is very variable in this market because of the continuous changes in customers needs and requirements. Relation between quality and price is improving because of the outsourcing of manufacturing in countries with lower labour costs. Bargaining power of buyers One negative aspect is the almost nonexistent loyalty in the cheap fashion segment. Also the switching costs are low. Price is a very important variable for customers. Among the positive aspects its important to say that the volume of purchase is small, that is to say a single buyer is irrelevant for the company. Apart from customers association, they are not very well organized to defend their interests. Bargaining power of suppliers It is not very high because there are a lot of suppliers in countries with low labour costs. That is to say, retailers can impose the demanding conditions because they have more power than suppliers. Rivalry among existing firms in the fashion industry There are a lot of existing local, national and international competitors. The opportunities to growth are not very high because of the maturity of the sector. The price variable is very influential in consumers when considering alternatives. The quick changes in customers requirements do not permit to develop strong scale economies. In this market is very important the good image of the brand worldwide.Ã Ã 7.2 HM competitive strategies Cost leadership It is a strategy based on scale economies and in the outsourcing of the manufacturing process to countries with low labour costs. In this way the company can offer low pricesÃ Ã without losing quality and besides being profitable. Thanks to it, the company can self-finance to increase the number of stores and the sales. HM mission is offering quality at the best price. Differentiation strategy This strategy was implementing few years ago. Celebrities and famous designers have created exclusive collections for HMÃ Ã . Thanks to these collaborations, the company achieves to differentiate in the fashion retail market. This phenomenon is called masstigeÃ Ã , and can be defined as an alliance between a prestigious brand and a mass consumer brand. Thanks to it, consumer can buy a branded product at an affordable price. Masstige is formed by two words mass market and prestige Customers perceive that HMs have an added value in comparison with other competitors and they are willing to pay a premium price for them. It the short run the company improves its turnover and in the long term it builds a stronger brand awareness and prestige that it could use to penetrate in difficult markets. 5. Strategic directions of development I am going to use Ansoffs matrix to analyze the main strategic directions followed by the company through the product and market: C:UserspelegriÃ ±PicturesAnsoff-Matrix.gifÃ Ã Market penetration: This strategy is used to increase existing products sales in the current market. This can be achieved gaining competitors customers and encouraging them to acquire more companys products. HMs key for market penetration is offering fashionable clothing with cheaper prices than other competitors like ZaraÃ Ã . Doyle (2002) argues that the foundation of a successful brand is quality. The company is very concerned about that, therefore it has comprehensive quality control methods which guarantee customer satisfaction. Thanks to the strong advertising campaigns the company has increased its popularity worldwide helped by the globalization of fashion trends and lifestyles. Market development: Lynch (2003) says it involves targeting new segments of a market, identifying new uses for the companys products or entering new international markets. HM internationalization strategy is based on entering one market at a time. Although the standardization of HMs products, the company introduces slight variations to be adapted to the new market culture. According to the new market segments, the company has launched COS (Collection of Style) with more expensive and smarter clothes than the HMs common one. Product development It can be defined that offering really new and innovative products to the current customers. HM develop this strategy, for example, through strategic alliances with famous designers and fashion icons like Karl Lagerfeld, Madonna or Roberto Cavalli which improve HMs prestige worldwide. Furthermore, the company concerns about research and development, for instance, it introduced environmental friendly materials like organic cotton in its 2008 Spring Collection and then along its entire range of products. Also it is important to underline here that HM has created perfumes, cosmetics and beauty products. Besides as I have said in the introduction HM has a home line available on the internt. C:UserspelegriÃ ±Pictureskarl.bmp . Diversification: This strategy is the riskiest because it means to develop new products and entering new markets. HM has been focusing in fashion items like clothes, jeweler, shoes, bags or accessories so it has not developed very much this strategy. Only they have performed a diversification strategy, specifically household items through HM Home.Ã Ã The company has also developed curious products such as the stuff pack for the computer game The Sims 2 called Fashion Stuff Pack in June 2007 in collaboration with Maxis game developers. 2 6. Methods of development In this section, I am going to analyse the methods of development used by HM in the recent years, and besides the benefits and challenges that each one involve. Lynch (2003) said that HM has followed a forward vertical integration strategy as method of growth. This means that the company develops activities oriented to customers, the final product and the distribution network (retailing) more than related with suppliers (backward integration). Thanks to this strategy, the company can collect information about sales and customers needs to reply quickly to changes in the fashion market. HM and Zara are known as fast-fashion retailers. This has permitted them to expand successfully in Europe, Asia and America. However, they have a different internationalization strategy, because HM tends to adapt its products and strategy o the new market while Zara reproduces the original successful business model in all the markets. Zara prices vary depending on the country while HM has the same price in all the markets in which it is present HM is a strong financially company which seeks to maintain a good profitability in its growth strategy. We can say that the growth is substantive but also controlled. The growth goals are to increase the number of stores by 10-15% per year, as well as increasing sales in existing stores. In the last five years, the company has had a great growth in number of stores, turnovers and earnings per share. Focusing on HMs geographical expansion, its first store abroad was opened in Norway in 1964. Then it continued with the expansion in UK, Denmark, Switzerland and Germany. In the 1990s, it opened stores in Finland, France, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands. The first store in US was opened in New York in March 2000. The first store in Asia was in Dubai in 2006, and thanks to a franchising strategy. After this, it entered to East Asia by opening stores in Hong Kong and ShangaiÃ Ã in 2007. Japan in 2008, Russia in 2009 and Corea in 2010 were the following countries to enter. The two first Israeli stores opened in 2010 and as I said in the introduction there were pro-Palestine group protests. It is planned to open new stores in Croatia and Singapore for 2011. HM main method of entry is an organic growth by opening is own stores in the new market. But we can see also that since 2006 the company has followed a franchising strategy in Middle East to open 3 stores in Dubai in agreement with M.H. Alshaya, a company from Kuwait specialized in holding franchises with international retail brands. In this paragraph I am going to use the SPACE matrix (Strategic Position Action Evaluation matrix) which is a management tool used to analyze a company and to determine what type of strategy it should undertake. Rowe et al. (1989) developed this model based on four important variables: The stability/ turbulence of the environment Industry attractiveness The competitive advantage The companys financial strength Throughout this report I have analyzed these variables, therefore it can be argued that HM is a strong financially company, as the sales, profits and financial ratios show. To determine the industry attractiveness it is useful the Porters five forces seen in the section 4. Following with the environmental stability we can use the PEST analysis done in the section 2 and for the competitive advantage it has to be taken into account the strategic directions and the methods of development. After having analyzed all these points and drawing the SPACE matrix, it can be concluded that HM should follow an aggressive strategy. HM has a strong competitive position in the market (a known brand worldwide) and a quite good financial position to support this strategy. It needs to use its internal strengths to develop a market penetration and a market development strategy. In fact it is the strategy that HM has been followed in the last years, as the expansion to Asia and Middle East show (market development strategy) and opening more and more stores in the existing markets such as Europe (market penetration). As recommendations, it can be suggested that the company entered South American market by performing a market development strategy. HM has not arrived yet to this market and it would be very interesting due to there are a lot of customers in this market interesting in buying fashion cheap clothes and the company could adapt quickly to the South American market culture, gaining ground to its competitors within a market full of opportunities to growth. On the other hand as a market penetration strategy it can be suggested to follow with the opening of new stores in the current market, increase the size of the existing stores and try to manage present products and services more effectively.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Las Vegas Las Vegas, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Sin CityÃ¢â¬ , is one of the most popular tourist spots in the world. It is the fastest growing city in the United States with a population of over a million people. Six thousand people move to Vegas every month and only one thousand people leave, giving it a net growth of approximately five thousand people a month. If you visit Las Vegas once a year, you will see huge changes in with the city to accommodate their phenomenal growth. I flew into Las Vegas for Spring Break of 2005. My Uncle and his family live there so it makes for a fun and relaxing get-away. It had been four years since my last visit to Vegas and there were enormous changes in that amount of time. Flying into Las Vegas offers a spectacular view of the area. Mountains surround the vast city and you can see a breathtaking view of Lake Mead. Right before the plane touches down on the runway, the sights of the city are more visible as the airport is relatively close to the famous Las Vegas Strip. Colorful, bright lights and huge glamorous buildings line the famous Strip, all of them presenting a different theme or culture. Arriving in the busy Las Vegas airport you are immediately greeted with the sights and sounds of slot machines. The lure of gambling is one of the first sights the city offers. The airport is full of hustling people of all walks of life and from many different countries. It is quite common to hear people talking in their native language as you make your way to the luggage claim. But, despite all the congestion of people heading in all directions, it is very easy to find your way through the airport. As one leaves the airport and merges into the heavy traffic, it becomes apparent that you are not i... ...inter months. My cousin works on BearÃ¢â¬â¢s Best Golf Course, which was designed by Jack Nickolus and is built around the mountains. It is a very impressive and challenging golf course with many sand traps, water hazards, tall roughs, and fast greens. As you can tell, I really enjoyed my trip to Las Vegas. My vacation was from a different perspective than most visitors, since I had relatives to show me a different Vegas. Their Vegas was not the gaudy, showy Vegas, but the Vegas that they live in everyday. I was blessed with the opportunity to meet new people and visit with them about the work world in Las Vegas. I enjoyed the gambling and doing some night clubbing. But, I enjoyed even more the time with my relatives and their friends. Vegas is definitely a place I can see myself living after I am done with school. It has great job opportunities for college graduates.
Friday, July 19, 2019
George Melies Tripto the Moon In the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s Georges Melies introduced his film Ã¢â¬Å"A Trip To The MoonÃ¢â¬ to audiences in France. This film, when first seen by viewers at this time, was jawdropping. Melies who happened to be a magician, and illusionist before becoming a filmmaker, made one of the first-ever narratives in motion picture history. Similarily throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Trip To The MoonÃ¢â¬ and many of his later films, Melies, who also worked in theatre, took full advantage of what is known as Mise-en-scene. Mise-en-scene is defined as: All the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed: the settings and props, lighting, costumes and make-up, and figure behavior. In Ã¢â¬Å"Trip to the MoonÃ¢â¬ Melies created a world to which no one had ever seen on film, and utilized all the characteristics to which mise-en-scene is based upon. In probably using only one camera for his film, Melies had to basically film in a theater style setting. Almost every shot of the film is a long shot which is taken from the audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ point-of-view angle. There were no close-ups in Ã¢â¬Å"Trip To The MoonÃ¢â¬ no dolly shots, or handheld shots..etc. Throughout the film the same angle and longshot is used, however that does not take away from the film, knowing that he could only utilize this shot, Melies went on to first: Decorate his set like no one had ever seen. For instance in the beginning of the film we can see what looks like an abundance of individuals who seemed to be gathered in what resembles a castle of some sort. This is where the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"wizardsÃ¢â¬ have gathered and have figured out to take their trip to the moon. The following scene shows us a large cannon type figure, an extremely large cannon to be exact, very abnormal looking. The concept of space travel at this time was unheard of and thi s being a silent film, allows us to realize that just by looking at this contraption that this is how they are going to get to the moon. It is by these elements that Melies utilizes mise-en-scen, and in other cases such as the rocky hills of the moon, the bullet shaped space-ship that encapsulates the wizards and sends them on their trip. The costumes of the actors that are used in the film also give us the feeling that these folks are not from our time, but we can identify with their Ã¢â¬Å"wizardlyÃ¢â¬ presence.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Sigmund Freud and Everyday Use Sigmund Freud is best known for his development and use of psychoanalysis. The theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the concept of how our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and emotions play an active role in our daily lives. The id, ego, and superego are the three mental zones that encompass our psyche. Each zone has a specific function: The id functions on the pleasure principle; the ego on the protection of the individual; and the superego on protection of society. The degree of which each zone has been developed can be broken down and then analyzed. These three zones can be visualized by imagining a pie cut into three slices. Every individual is composed of different amounts of each mental zone. The ultimate goal is to achieve the perfect balance of the three areas by understanding how each area works alone and contributes to make the whole. In the short story "Everyday Use" by Alice Walker, Dee's actions are clearly attributed to her over and under development in specific mental zones. Dee, rather Wangero as she prefers being called, suffers from an overdeveloped id, a distorted sense of ego, and an underdeveloped superego. With this degree of pull and tug, misunderstandings are a common experience between Dee (Wangero) and her peers. The id is the main energy source for the psyche. The id " '...knows no values, no good and evil, no morality' " (HCAL 130); it functions on instinctual motives. Dee (Wangero) possesses a straightforward, rather blunt, disposition about life. Life is hers for the taking and she dares anything to stand in her way. She takes on the attitude that the world was created to satisfy her. Since the world gave her books to read, she expected the world to listen to her read; because the world giving her clothing options to choose from, she expected the world to respect her choices; in changing her name, she expected the world to honor this change. Her id was overdeveloped because she acted on instinctual sources rather than moral for her decisions. The overdeveloped id frequently appears when the self-centered, self-serving side of her become more prominent than her outward orientated, selfless side.
UV0906 UNITED PARCEL SERVICE OF AMERICA, INC. United Parcel Service of America, Inc. (UPS) had grown spectacularly from its humble beginning in 1907, when 19-year-old Jim Casey borrowed $100 to start a messenger and homedelivery service for Seattle department stores. By 2007, UPS had become a global public company, with a market cap of $74 billion, more than 428,000 employees, $47 billion in revenue, and operations in more than 200 countries. A recognized leader among packagedelivery companies, its growth had been above industry averages and had historically been through geographical expansion.In 1998, UPS changed its business model to Synchronized Commerce and adopted a new growth strategy it called the Four Quadrant model. UPS had hoped to expand its market space from $90 billion to $3. 2 trillion by transforming itself into a logistics-solutions company. But eight years after these changes, UPS was generating only 17% of its revenue from its nonpackage deliveries, with only $2 mil lion of its operating profit coming from the new businesses. In the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2006 Annual Report, UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew acknowledged the disappointing results and realized that these results required a response to the public market.Growth History Store locations One can look at the growth of UPS over the past 100 years as an iterative geographical expansion. UPS began as an intracity business in Seattle in 1907, and had expanded to Oakland, California, by 1919. Over the next 58 years, UPS established stores across the United States, opening its first one in New York City in 1930. In this manner, UPS extended its service through its new locations just like any expanding retailer and, in the process, became an intercity package deliverer.This case was prepared by Edward D. Hess, Professor and Batten Executive-in-Residence. It was written as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. It was a dapted from Professor HessÃ¢â¬â¢s chapter on UPS in The Search for Organic Growth, ed. Hess and Kazanjian (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006). Copyright Ã © 2007 by the University of Virginia Darden School Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved.To order copies, send an e-mail to [emailÃ protected] com. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any meansÃ¢â¬âelectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwiseÃ¢â¬âwithout the permission of the Darden School Foundation. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -2- UV0906 The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical expansion went international in 1975, when UPS opened a store in Ontario, Canada.European expansion began in 1976, with a new store in Dusseldorf, Germany. UPS then expanded continually throughout the world: the Asia-Pacific region in 1988, and Latin America in 1989. By 1995, the company had entered China, its last untapped market. Customer evolution From its beginning, in 1907, UPS operated for 46 years as an intracity delivery business, transporting packages from large department stores to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ homes. Then the company expanded, providing residential deliveries for other types of businesses and later for business deliveries.Changes in the American lifestyle and shopping patterns that emerged with the creation of suburbs, regional malls, and an interstate highway system forced the company to go in a new direction. UPS responded to the changes in demographics, transportation, and customer needs by transforming itself, first, into a national delivery company and, ultimately, in the 1990s, into a global delivery company. The company broadened its customer base further by delivering more than 50% of the packages that customers bought over the Internet.By 2007, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base included all types and sizes of b usinesses, from Dell Computer to the individual entrepreneur selling products on the Internet. UPSÃ¢â¬â¢s 2006 worldwide revenues of $47 billion were derived primarily from package and document deliveries. From 2002 to 2007, the company expanded the scope of its services under its Synchronized Commerce model to provide freight forwarding, customs clearance, inventory management, pick and pack, export financing, and customer returns and repairs. Company Growth The growth of UPS can be illustrated best by its revenue growth, from $29. billion in 2000 to more than $47 billion in 2006. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating model produced operating margins that were the best in the industry. As shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, UPS averaged 12% annual growth over the past decade and generated an average return on equity in excess of 20%. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -3Table 1. UPS operating results. (in billions of dollars) 2006 Revenue Oper ating margins Net income CFFO $47. 6 14. 0% $ 4. 2 $ 5. 6 2005 $42. 6 14. 4% $ 3. $ 5. 8 2004 $36. 6 13. 6% $ 3. 3 $ 5. 3 2003 $33. 5 13. 3% $ 2. 9 $ 4. 6 UV0906 2002 $31. 3 13. 5% $ 3. 2 $ 5. 7 Table 2. Revenue in 2006 by segment. U. S. domestic packages International packages Supply chain and freight 64% 19% 17% Table 3. Operating profit (loss). 2006 U. S. domestic packages International packages Supply chain and freight UPS Operations Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, UPS had more than 428,000 employees worldwide, of whom more than 248,000 worked under union agreements. UPS was a vertically integrated company.For example, it operated the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s eighthlargest airline, which employed more than 2,800 pilots and maintained a fleet of 600 jets. Flying more than 1,900 flight segments to more than 800 airports around the world, UPS airplanes moved more than four million packages and documents daily. The company delivered more than 15. 6 million packages a day and was the Intern etÃ¢â¬â¢s largest fulfillment source. And it delivered those 15. 6 million packages on time 99% of the timeÃ¢â¬âand defect-free. UPS also operated one of the largest truck fleets in the United States, with more than 94,000 vehicles. $4. B $1. 7B $2M 2005 $4. 5B $1. 5B $156M 2004 $3. 7B $1. 1B $138M 2003 $3. 7B $. 7B $56M 2002 $3. 9B $. 3B ($167M) Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -4- UV0906 In its role as a large technology and telecommunications company, UPS operated the largest DB2 data base in the world, with 412 terabytes of dynamic memory. Its mainframe capacity allowed for the transmission of more than 22,000,000 instructions per second. UPS had more than 4,700 employees in its technology unit. In addition, the company operated the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest phone system.Its mobile radio network transmitted more than three million packets of tracking data each day; one example of the vastness of the scale of its communicatio ns was that UPS received more than 145 million hits per business day on its Web site, with 252 million hits on peak days. The enormous size of the company was further illustrated by its Worldport technology and package hub, based in Louisville, Kentucky. This automated Ã¢â¬Å"airportÃ¢â¬ and package-sorting center comprised four million square feet, the equivalent of 80 football fields, and processed some 1,200,000 packages a night during a four-hour period.UPS was expanding its Worldport facility by adding another 1. 1 million square feet to increase its hourly capacity by 20%. Employees The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 85,000 drivers held esteemed positions in the company. The average tenure of a driver was 16 years, and driver turnover was less than 2% a year. Union drivers could earn up to $70,000 a year. Senior drivers received nine weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ paid annual leave, and 100% of their health-insurance premiums were paid by the company. With more than one-third of its employees from minori ty groups, UPS had a diverse workforce. More than 25% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s U. S. anagers were also members of minority groups. Women represented 27% of its U. S. management team and 21% of its overall workforce. More than 70% of its full-time managers had been promoted from within. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s promote-from-within policy and employee-centric culture were further illustrated by the fact that more than 50% of its full-time drivers had started as part-timers. At less than 6%, annual employee turnover at UPS was low. Long tenures and low turnover permeated the company, from its front-line employees to its district managers to its 12person executive team. The average tenure for district managers was 14 years.The senior management team averaged 30 years of service. Eleven of the twelve executives, including one woman and one African American, had spent their entire working lives at UPS. Interestingly, 75% of its vice presidents had started at UPS in nonmanagement positions, and nine of the twelve members of the senior management team had only an undergraduate college degree. And no one in management had an MBA from a top-ranked business school. Most had gone to such public colleges as Purdue, Delta State, Portland State, Rutgers, and the University of Illinois. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] om) on November 12, 2012 -5- UV0906 Kurt Kuehn, a member of the senior management team and senior vice president of Sales and Marketing, stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Most senior managers like me began at UPS as part-timers in college or as package sorters or assistants. We loved it, and we stayed. Ã¢â¬ UPS became a public company in 1999, in the largest IPO in the history of the New York Stock Exchange. By 2007, about half of UPS stock was owned by its current and former employees and their families. Customer Reach Yes, UPS was big and UPS was global. It made more than 15 million deliveries daily to nearly eight million customers.Its customer-contact points included 4,400 UPS stores in the United States, 1,400 global Mail Boxes Etc. stores, 1,000 UPS customer centers, 15,000 UPS authorized outlets, and 40,000 UPS drop boxes. Measurements UPS was focused on efficiency and productivity measurements and, in 2007, spent more than $10 billion integrating its processes and technology to make the company a real-time 24/7, 365-day operation. Behind every driver were the sophisticated technology and operations-support team that tracked the exact location of any package or document Ã¢â¬Å"anywhere, anytime. On a daily basis, UPS organized every part of its logistics chain for maximum efficiency, down to the order in which packages were loaded on vans. Using technology, UPS created routes daily that eliminated left-hand turns, saving driving time, millions of gallons of fuel, and fuel costs annually. In September 2003, UPS unveiled a new technology system designed to improve customer service and provide greater internal efficiency. This n ew system was expected to reduce mileage by more than 100 million miles and save the company almost 14 million gallons of fuel annually.In addition, the new system featured advanced tools allowing UPS to analyze and edit dispatch plans in order to optimize delivery routes and times. Ã¢â¬Å"We have a saying at UPS,Ã¢â¬ said Kurt Kuehn. Ã¢â¬Å"In God we trust; everything else we measure. Ã¢â¬ Another important ingredient in the UPS recipe for success was its engineering process and measurement mentality. UPS measured everything: CO2 emissions, the time it took to wash a windshield, the pace a driver needed to walk to a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s house, the most efficient way to start a package vanÃ¢â¬â¢s ignition, the optimal way to load a package van, and the optimal daily delivery routes.Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -6- UV0906 In 1921, founder Jim Casey hired the first industrial engineer to do efficiency time and motion studie s. Casey started UPS on a path of process engineering that, over the years, developed into a powerful operations-research division. The division spent its first 87 years internally focused on measuring everything that could be measured, such as studying, modeling, and simulating the movements of people, conveyor belts, and packages.For example, UPS developed 340 methods for drivers to follow to increase their efficiency and ensure safety. This measurement mentality taught everyone to pay attention to the details and the little things that could threaten safety and impede on-time delivery. Another example of the passion for measurement was the way UPS measured its managers. The company used a balanced scorecard and published 16 UPS key performance indicators for the economics, social, and environmental areas. UPS measured water consumption, ground-network fuel efficiency, and global aircraft emissions.The purpose of this measure-everything mentality was expressed by Jim Holsen, vice president of Engineering, who said, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re never satisfied with the way things are, if they can be improved. Ã¢â¬ This measurement compulsiveness did not mean that UPS was a micromanaged, rigid, robotic workplace where every action was dictated by best practices. UPS overcame that tendency through its performance culture of paying its people well, holding everyoneÃ¢â¬âfrom the package sorter to the CEOÃ¢â¬âto the same high standards, and being a predominantly employeeowned company.In 1942, strong controls were offset by local autonomy from the districtmanager level when drivers were given the power and authority to do what was needed to serve customers. As Jim Casey said, Ã¢â¬Å"Each local manager is in charge of his district. We want him to look upon it exactly as if it were his own business. We want him to solve his problems in his own way. Ã¢â¬ Culture: The Essence of UPS To understand how UPS had continued to grow its business over a 100-year period whil e avoiding the common death spiral of corporate arrogance, hubris, and insularity, it was important to understand the UPS culture and the UPS operations-research mentality.Both were so integrated and intertwined that they were a seamless whole. And both were continually perpetuated at UPS through stories, processes, measurement systems, human-resource policies, and leadership. Jim Casey built UPS over a 50-year period with a distinct and well-defined culture that embraced the values of integrity, quality, dignity, respect, stewardship, partnership, equality, and humility. To understand UPS meant understanding Casey, a man who went to work at the age of 9 because his father was ill, and who founded UPS at 19.Casey was a self-made success who rose above his humble background but never forgot his roots, treating every individual and employee with the dignity and respect he felt each deserved. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -7- UV09 06 Casey often wrote and spoke about the type of company UPS should be and the values it needed to foster. He left his imprint on UPS through the values that were taught to every new employee.UPS executives believed it was their duty to make sure those values, those ways of doing business, and those ways of taking care of employees continued. They did not want the UPS culture to change or fail on their watch. The richness of the UPS culture was evidenced by the Employee Policy Manual, which every employee received, and the compendium of CaseyÃ¢â¬â¢s speeches in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s book Legacy of Leadership. These speeches proved that Casey wanted to build a business where employees took pride in working for a company that conducted business as an outstanding corporate citizen.The UPS culture was multifaceted: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ A performance culture with Ã¢â¬Å"partneurialÃ¢â¬ mutuality of accountability, regardless of position A constant challenge-and-be-critical and be- better culture described as constructive dissatisfaction An employee-centric ownership culture with executives as stewards of the business Mutual accountability Kurt Kuehn described the UPS culture: Ã¢â¬Å"A culture of mutual accountability. Everyone is accountable to everyone else for performanceÃ¢â¬âdoing whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right and doing it well. Ã¢â¬ And he added, Ã¢â¬Å"With our measurement system, we try to take personalities and politics out of judging performance. At UPS, the CEO was as accountable to his employees as they were to him. And in response to this, CEO Mike Eskew had a special telephone installed in his office so that any UPS employee could call him directly at any time. This mutual accountability was partneurial because employees were viewed as partners. In fact, most were actual owners of the business. This mutual accountability bred a more egalitarian culture that discouraged and devalued arrogance, hubris, or self-aggrandizement. For example, all of the top 12 executives at UPS had offices on the fourth floor instead of the top floor of the headquarters building.All the executives had offices of the same size, and almost all shared senior administrative assistants. These executives were not provided with limos or drivers. UPS did not own a corporate jet. Executives flew commercial and followed the same travel policies as other employees. There was no executive dining room. It was rare to see Italian suits, French cuffs, or made-to-order shirts on the fourth floor. For the most part, 11 of the 12 executives had held several different positions as they worked their way up the corporate ladder.The UPS culture frowned on self-marketing, and the company worked hard every day to continue the values and ideals put in place by Jim Casey. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -8- UV0906 When asked to describe the UPS mutual-performance culture, KuehnÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of the word Ã¢â¬Å"relentlessÃ ¢â¬ said it all about the passion at UPS. Relentless improvement UPS was relentless about improving and worked at a problem until it was solved. By emphasizing the detailsÃ¢â¬âthe blocking and tackling of the businessÃ¢â¬âthe company focused on the processes of efficiency and productivity.This iterative learning culture was illustrated by Casey, who, when he started the business, wrote to more than 100 delivery companies across the United States to ask them how they made a profit. He reported, Ã¢â¬Å"We found no singular idea that was really revolutionary. It seemed to be a matter of learning as we went along, and that is about all that we have done. Ã¢â¬ 1 The UPS culture was about the relentless pursuit of constant, incremental improvement. It was about how the company could be faster, smarter, and more efficient. This led to the rewarding and honoring of constructive dissatisfaction.Dissent, inquiry, questioning, challenging, and critiquing were all valued and encourag ed because they helped UPS improve. The company took the long-term approach. For instance, it took the international-operations division 28 years to become profitable. UPS was like the Ã¢â¬Å"little engine that could,Ã¢â¬ working at a problem or a process incrementally and iteratively until it was improved. Stewardship The third strong aspect of the UPS culture was the partneurial, employee-centric ownership and leader-stewardship that helped everyone in the company achieve their potential. According to Casey, Ã¢â¬Å"One measure of your success Ã¢â¬ ¦ will be he degree to which you build up others who work with you. While building up others, you will build up yourself. Ã¢â¬ 2 Casey continued: Good management is not just organization. It is an attitude inspired by the will to do right. Good management is taking a sincere interest in the welfare of the people you work with. It is the ability to make people feel that you and they are the companyÃ¢â¬ânot merely employees. 3 On the subject of future leaders, Casey said: Who will those leaders be? They will be people who now, today, are forging aheadÃ¢â¬ânot speculating or with fanfare but modestly and quietly.They are the plain, simple people who are doing their best in their present jobs with us, whatever those jobs may happen to be. Such people will not fail us when called 1 2 UPS archives, 1947. UPS archives, 1945. 3 UPS archives, 1944. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -9- UV0906 on for bigger things. It is for them, our successors, to remember that all the glamour, romance, and success we have in our business at any stage of its existence must be the product of years of benefiting from the work of many devoted people.And there can be no glamour, no romance, and no truly great success unless it is shared by all. 4 The employee-centric culture of UPS was further evidenced by the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promotion-fr om-within policies and actions Employee stock-ownership plans Diversity programs Employee education programs Local employees working in international operations Employee internal free-agent program allowing any UPS employee to move anywhere in the company and advanceCasey believed in and acted on the policy that it was the employees and not the executives who made a company successful, and UPS believed it had an obligation to share its success fairly with those who made it happen. The three aspects of the UPS cultureÃ¢â¬âmutual accountability, constructive dissatisfaction, and employee-centric policies and ownershipÃ¢â¬âwere the foundation of the UPS way of doing business. Integrated into these cultural values and policies were operations research and a measurement mentality.But an important part of UPS was its corporate Ã¢â¬Å"heart. Ã¢â¬ Two examples of corporate citizenship at UPS stood out. In 1968, at the height of the civil-rights movement in the United States, the co mpany began a diversity-awareness program that was unique in corporate America. Calling it the Community Internship Program, UPS placed more than 1,200 senior managers in inner city or Appalachian environments. These employees spent several weeks working in soup kitchens, homeless shelters, and other community-service facilities.UPS also issued an Annual Corporate Sustainability Report. More than 80 pages long, this report detailed how UPS balanced its economic success with social and environmental objectives and how it measured its performance. To that end, for five years running, UPS and its employees made up the largest segment of contributors to the U. S. United Way Campaign, contributing more than $57 million in 2005 alone. 4 UPS archives, 1957. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -10Cultural Fit in Hiring UV0906UPS hired people who fit into its culture and its iterative improvement and measurement workplace. The people who UPS avoided hiring were those who wanted a fast track to the top. Instead, UPS looked for candidates who wanted to be part of a team that was the best at what it did and who loved the blocking and tackling of team business. The payoff for a job well done was the opportunity for a career of professional and experience development. New Business Model and Strategy When UPS ran out of geographical areas in which to grow, at least three things could have happened.First, it could have hit the growth wall and plateaued. Second, it could have tried to sell new, complementary services to its existing customer base. And third, it could have made a major diversification move through an acquisition. In 1998, the company picked the second option when it announced it would provide Synchronized Commerce solutions for its customer base. Synchronized Commerce expanded UPSÃ¢â¬â¢s market space, and CEO Mike Eskew declared, Ã¢â¬Å"Our new mission is ambitious. It propels us from a $90-billion market into a $3. -trillion market. Ã¢â¬ In effect, Synchronized Commerce allowed UPS to sell more products and services to its existing customers. To effectuate this model, UPS acquired nearly 30 service providers with expertise in such different areas of Synchronized Commerce as freight forwarding, customer clearing, export financing, fulfillment services, and customer returns and repairs. Eskew defined Synchronized Commerce as the coordinated and efficient movement of goods, information, and financing along the supply and distribution chain.This change was huge, as it not only challenged the UPS sales force, but also changed the focus of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations-research division. Rather than focusing exclusively on improving efficiency and productivity, the focus shifted to a consulting group that sold those skills to UPS customers. Four Quadrant Model UPS did not stop at its Synchronized Commerce initiative. Eskew also codified and explained UPSÃ¢â¬â¢s organic-growth strategy to UPS employees and to Wall Street. He named this new strategy the Four Quadrant Model, based on the University of North Carolina basketball teamÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the four-quadrant offense.He stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We will call our offense for innovation Ã¢â¬ËThe Four Quadrants,Ã¢â¬â¢ which focuses on innovating existing business operations internally and externally and likewise focuses innovation on new entrepreneurial ventures both internally and externally. Ã¢â¬ Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012 -11- UV0906 The Four Quadrant Model reemphasized the long-standing principle at UPS of maintaining the core while seeking to grow new revenue sources. UPS was adamant that it could not fail in servicing its core business and that it had to keep adding services to its existing service model.Kurt Kuehn explained: Ã¢â¬Å"The more value we can add for our customers on top of or within our existing business model, the more value we will create for our customers and for UPS. Ã¢â¬ He added, Ã¢â¬Å"Our organic-growth strategy is simple: it is the business model. Ã¢â¬ The entrepreneurial activities at UPS were internally and externally driven by its venturecapital fund and alliances with universities and partners. UPS understood that it would have a high failure rate, but worked to manage the risks so that much could be learned quickly and at a low cost.Results of New Business Model In the fourth quarter of 2006, UPS initiated a restructuring plan for its forwarding and logistics operations, including a reduction in nonoperating staff of approximately 1,400 people. And how had the new model done? It had produced only $2 million in operating profit. Eskew knew that these disappointing results required a response to the public market, so he acknowledged the situation: The Supply Chain and Freight segment produced disappointing results Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2006 brought a sharper focus in our logistics businessÃ¢â¬ ¦.Simply, all suppl y chain solutions must meet two criteria. One, they must be limited to the transportation network, and two, they must be repeatable, and that is, able to be used by a number of customers simultaneously. 5 Still, the new business model had raised some interesting questions. 5 2006 UPS Annual Report. Purchased by carlos manuel Garcia Gay ([emailÃ protected] com) on November 12, 2012