Saturday, August 31, 2019
1. Boundary Types (Antecedent, Subsequent, etc. ) a. This concept is important because it shows the relationship between different regions, as well as colonized countries and their colonizers. The different boundary types either create more difficult ways of transportation/trade, or ease transportation/trade, etc. 2. Federal/Unitary/Confederate Governments b. The different types of government are important because they show how a country is being ruled.It also hints at the type of culture; unitary governments tend to lead more homogenous states than federal, while confederate governments usually break up into several different states, like with Yugoslavia. 3. Supranationalism c. This is important because it is a method of decision making in a multi-national community. Supranationalist groups tie together countries or regions to make trade and money transference easier. (ex: EU) 4. State Shapes (Compact, Elongated, Prorupt, Fragmented, Perforated) d. The different shapes of states are important because each shape has certain benefits and disabilities, some more severe than others.For example, elongated states, like Chile, have a harder time distributing services that are easy to cover in compact states like Poland. 5. Organic Theory e. This theory is important because it shows that a country is in a state of nature or in a relationship between it and an individual. It is the basis for most colonizing states, such as Great Britain or France, as a means of expanding territory and rule. 6. McKinderÃ¢â¬â¢s Heartland Theory f. Basis for Nazi takeover of Europe; stormed throughout other European countries in an attempt to control everyone. 7.SpykmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Rimland Theory g. Basis for NATO and CENTO, both organizations aimed at making sure Nazi Germany never got control of the rimland of Eurasia. It is presumed that by preventing this takeover, Nazis would not be able to extend their power any further. 8. Centripetal/Centrifugal h. Forces that pull a nation togethe r (centripetal), or pull it apart (centrifugal); important because it describes either the large homogeneity or unity in a state and how it benefits it, or mass corruption/disagreement. 9. Nation-State, State/Nation, Stateless Nation i.A Stateless Nation is important because it is a political organization for homogenous people in a sovereign state. When either the state of homogenous nation is taken out, problems tend to arise, often involving conflict over land, government and international recognition. (ex: Kurds) 10. Boundary Disputes j. Important because it shows the relationship between countries; their past may include already-fought wars on boundary placement, and now produces problems concerning labor and money, religion, and politics, etc. (ex: US-Mexico, China-Nepal, Pakistan-India)
Friday, August 30, 2019
Animal rights are one of the most controversial issues today. There has been endless debate about whether or not animals have rights. Philosophers attempt to come up with the moral conclusions by taking in account the many different standpoints and presenting their related arguments. In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The case of animal rightsÃ¢â¬ , Tom Regan, a professor of philosophy at North Carolina State University, defends his view that the center of our moral concern should not bring the suffering on animal as well as treating animals in a certain way. In other words, we should treat animals as if they are our property. We should only use them to benefit us and hurting them is an action that is not morally justifiable. In addition, in his article Ã¢â¬Å"All Animal Are EqualÃ¢â¬ , Peter Singer, an Australian philosopher, has many points which show us that we have responsibilities to protect animal rights. SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in his essay gives us a great support to the argument that Reagan trying to discuss in terms of morally equal. In contrast, Ã¢â¬Å"The case of the use of animals in biomedical researchÃ¢â¬ by Carl Cohen, a philosophy professor at University of Michigan Medical School, although he agrees with ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s idea in terms of moral rights as well as practices that essentially involve harming animals are morally unjustified, he strongly supports for the use of animal in medical research, and scientific experiments to avoid risking human lives. Ã¢â¬Å"The case of animal rightsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"all animal are equalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The case of the use of animals in biomedical researchÃ¢â¬ introduce to us a new thinking about treating animals. In his essay, Tom Regan points out theories are deficient in animals. The author discusses Ã¢â¬Å"Indirect duty viewÃ¢â¬ which humans should recognize that animals should have the same rights as humans and they have the duty to uphold these rights. Besides that, Regan states in the Ã¢â¬Å"ContractarianismÃ¢â¬ that humans have rights and can protect their rights under the terms of the contract they signed. However, he indicated that animals have no rights because they cannot sign the contract. We humans should have direct duties to all animals. Even the views including Ã¢â¬Å"Indirect duty view,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cruelty-kindness view,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Utilitarian viewÃ¢â¬ fail to protect animal rights, he promotes the right view, which is the inherent value view. The author states that all individuals, including human and nonhuman animals, who are experienced the subject of life, should have equal inherent values and equal rights while being treated with respect. In addition, Peter Singer agrees with Regan that all animals are morally equal, at least with regard to their suffering. Peter Singer argues the point that animals and humans should be granted Ã¢â¬Å"equal consideration. Granting equal consideration means that humans and animals do not need to be treated exactly the same way, but that they need to be treated in an appropriate manner. Singer believes that suffering is Ã¢â¬Å"the vital characteristic that gives a being the right to equal considerationÃ¢â¬ . If all beings are able to suffer, animals should be treat ed with consideration equal to humans in most circumstances. Moreover, in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"All animals are equal,Ã¢â¬ Peter Singer points out the case for women's rights and refers to similar arguments of animalÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Since animalÃ¢â¬â¢s rights were absurd, the argument for women's rights must be mistaken. In contrast with both Regan and SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s views, Carl Cohen gives us strong evidences to demonstrate his standpoints why animals have no rights. He claims rights only exists within a community of moral agents who can make moral claims against each other and just human can exercise moral judgment. He thinks we must at least treat animals humanely, but this does not mean we need to treat them as if they have rights. He also compared the differences between animals with brain damaged persons, senile or young in terms of the ability to make claim which is essential to being a person. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why these people are still part of our moral community, but animals are not. Moreover, he strongly supports to the increasing in the use of animals for medical experiments. He agrees that we actually need to increase the number experiments to avoid risking human lives because the increase in longevity , decrease in pain , the significant numbers of lives saved , the quality of human life all depends on such those research or experiments.
Kaoru Ishikawa was born in Tokyo Japan in 1939. He earned his Engineering degree in applied chemistry from the University of Tokyo. After Graduating from college he was a navel technical officer until 1941. He worked at the Nissian Liquid Fuel Company until 1947 and then began his educational vocation at the University of Tokyo. In 1978 he became Musashi Institute of Technology President (Kaoru Ishikawa, 2008). Ishikawa came to be known as the Ã¢â¬Å"father of the Quality revolutionÃ¢â¬ to the people of Japan. When he was a professor at Tokyo University he realized the importance of the quality control methods that were introduced to his country by W. E Deming and J. R Juarn. He applied those methods to work with his countryÃ¢â¬â¢s industries. Ishikawa developed the Ã¢â¬Å"quality circlesÃ¢â¬ , the cause and effect diagram, and the importance of the seven quality tools. In addition, he wrote several books that explained statistics to the nonspecialist which one was the Guide to Quality Control. Another book he wrote was how to Operate QC Circle Activities which is based on quality circles. Quality circles are a method used to improve quality. Quality circles were developed in Japan in 1962 by Kaoru Ishikawa. A quality circle is a volunteer group of employees from the same work area who meet together to discuss work place improvement (Quality Circles, 2008). Quality circles were first used at the Nippon Telegraph and Cable Company in 1962 (Ã¢â¬Å"Death of Professor,Ã¢â¬ 1989). Ishikawa had only intended his methods of quality circles to be used for Japan but it has now spread to more than 50 countries. With the development of IshikawaÃ¢â¬â¢s cause and effect diagram management leaders made large advancements in quality improvement ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). With this new diagram users can see all of the possible causes of a result and find the process of imperfections ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). The cause and effect diagram can easily be used by non- specialist to analyze and solve problems. Dr. E. W Deming used this diagram to teach Total Quality Control in Japan. Another name for IshikawaÃ¢â¬â¢s cause and effect diagram is the Ishikawa or fishbone diagram. Ishikawa showed the importance of the seven Quality tools which are control chart, run chart, histogram scatter diagram, Pareto chart and flow chart. Ishikawa also expanded on DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s four steps into six steps which are determine goals and targets, determine methods of reaching goals, engage in education and training, implement work, check the effects of implementation, and take appropriate action ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). Ishikawa also wrote and was the editor of many books. He wrote Guide to Quality control in 1968, as well as What Is Total Quality Control in 1981. He was the editor of QC circle Koryo in 1970, and How to operate QC Circle activates in 1971. Ishikawa has been credited with JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s quality achievements and has received many awards such as the Deming prize, and the blue ribbon medal which was given to him by the Japanese government. His work has changed how people perceive quality management and many of his methods and books are still used to this day by large and small businesses. Bibliography http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/ishikawa.asp http://www.vectorstudy.com/management_theories/quality_circles.htm
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Critique and conclusion of context & rationale paper - Essay Example However, that alone is not the sole purpose of rainwater harvesting. Places which receive tremendous amount of rainfall every year have as much a reason for harvesting water as those living in the Sub-Saharan deserts. It is imperative to keep in mind that effective utilisation of water is the key to reduce droughts and floods at the same time. What comes to the rescue is effective design of methods that cater to the immediate requirement of a particular region. One of the best examples is the use of LifeStraw as a water purification method. Ã¢â¬Å"Lifestraw was created by Danish inventor Torben Vestergaard Feandsen. The product could be a lifesaverÃ¢â¬ (Fridell 58). It is nothing but a tube that one can use to suck water. The water gets purified when it passes through the levels of filtration. This kind of wonderful design is so portable and convenient to use that people do not actually have to set up any complex infrastructure for the same. Thomas Dickson in his book Ã¢â¬ËDansk DesignÃ¢â¬â¢ has described the implications of LifeStraw on the formidable task of preventing water borne diseases. He says that this product helps in preventing diseases that include typhoid and cholera which result in the deaths of millions every year. Dickson has also presented an interesting point about the lifespan of the product. Ã¢â¬Å"The lifespan of one straw is about 700 litres of water, so with a consumption of two litres a day, the straw can last about a yearÃ¢â¬ (Dickson 550). However, things change when there is a polar shift in the availability of water. In areas that receive very heavy rainfall throughout the year, a large amount of water is directly Rainwater 4 drained without even considering a reuse plan. Considering the damaging impact that a country can face due to a shortage of water, it becomes imperative to understand the importance of saving every drop of water that can be saved. And in doing so, it is an interesting fact to notice the diversities in d ifferent regions. If some places need to conserve water due to less rainfall, some have to do that to prevent water loss. Over the years, several designs have evolved which are tailor made for the particular environment. Ã¢â¬ËRaincatchÃ¢â¬â¢ is one such example that serves as an easy water harvesting method. It resembles a raincoat with an enhanced collar that serves the purpose of catchment in a rainwater harvesting system. With the help of an inbuilt filtration system, water gets accumulated at the bottom part of the coat through which it can be sucked using attached tubes. This design is the result of an innovative thinking of two Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design students. What is wonderful about this design is the practical approach coupled with the intention of harvesting rainwater. Ã¢â¬ËGreen TraceÃ¢â¬â¢ is another such example that proves how water can be saved without so much of an effort. It is a design consisting of a rectangular mesh that houses a non-wo ven fabric inside it. This fabric has water absorbing capabilities and it holds the seeds in between its sewing patterns. This entire mesh acts as an umbrella stand which captures all the water from a wet umbrella to be passed onto the seeds. The ultimate result is a gradual growth of plants that form a beautiful design pattern. This design, though very simple, is pretty helpful in optimising the use of water that otherwise may be wasted. It
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Jim Crow - Research Paper Example The Jim Crow was characterized by tough anti-black polices or laws (Packard 2003, 222). Under the Jim crow, people of color especially African Americans were seen as people who belonged to the lower or second class in society. The Jim Crow rallied for implementation of anti-black policies because many theologians and Christians preached that the white people were children of God. They taught that God cursed people of color especially black men to be servants, and due to this, God endorsed racial biasness (Boskin 1976). In addition, craniologists and social thinkers argued that the culture of the black people was inferior and that they were intellectually inferior to the white people. Those politicians who were against social integration believed that the black culture could not mix with the white culture as this could lead to mongrelization of the white race which they perceived to be superior than any other race (Klarman 2006, 211). The media propagated racial segregation in their articles where they referred to black people as darkies, coons, and niggers. Their messages in the articles spread anti-black information and stereotypes. For instance, in schools, white children saw black children as inferior and worthless. Under the Jim Crow, all social institutions such as schools and churches reinforced oppression of the people of color particularly African Americans (Parish 2008, 93-95). The Jim Crow norms worked in combination with the Jim Crow policies. The Jim Crow norms were responsible for black exclusion from significant facilities such as jobs, transport, and schools. The 13th and 15th amendment of the US constitution had given black people same rights and legal protection as white people (Stetson 2011, 188). However, when Rutherford was elected the US president, border and southern States started restricting the freedoms and rights of black people. Even the highest institution in the land, the Supreme Court, reinforced racial segregation with the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Labour Turnover and Customer Service in Restaurants - Essay Example As the discussion stresses restaurant, hotel and leisure industry is very much dependent on their employees for keeping their customer satisfied. This is a service industry where the intangibility, inseparability and heterogeneity of the service make it very challenging for the service provider to maintain consistency and increase the level of satisfaction received by the consumers.This discussion outlines that the labour turnover in the service industry is high. The high rate of turnover is result of various factors like lack of opportunities and growth, low income level and other reasons. The employees are the face of the service providing company. High employee turnover rate also indicates towards the management problems and internal issues of the organisation. Organisation is questioned for not able to retain its employees.Ã In this situation, it becomes very challenging for the human resource management professionals or business owner to ensure the stability of employees. Ther e are various strategies that a company adopts to attract and retain employees and maintain their image in the job market. Restaurant companies offer different types of monetary and non monetary benefits to its employees. The monetary benefits are incentives, bonus, stock options and others cash components.Ã The non monetary benefits include insurance, heath benefits, maternity and paternity leaves, education sponsorship, education assistance etc.
Monday, August 26, 2019
What is Education's Purpose - Essay Example There are two leading thoughts today about the overall purpose of education. The main goal of education is to teach the students what they need to know to go out into the world. But what is being taught in school is not coming across that way. The core subjects of Math, Science, Social Studies, and English are all needed to be taught to every student throughout the time they are in school. How a teacher goes about teaching their students the information is now what's at stake. In Ã¢â¬Å"School's OutÃ¢â¬ by Daniel Pink, he tells the reader that most of the classrooms have the smell of nostalgia, not of the students churning their mind. He also, shows the reader that public schools are not even up to date with the technology that is in the classrooms, making it that much harder on the teachers trying to help bring the next generations along into the world to be productive citizens of their perspective nations. As education goes on, the students, particularly those in the United States, are not keeping up with other students from foreign nations. Education's purpose is to teach the students what they need to know to go on and be successful in the world.... Daniel Pink shows the reader that even though the purpose of education is to attain knowledge and be successful in the world, maybe learning in public schools is not helping the students after all. In Ã¢â¬Å"School's OutÃ¢â¬ , Pink tells the reader that the children who attend public schools are being out tested by the students who are home schooled. He goes on to tell us that with the ever changing economy and the collapse of company after company, that more people are going into small business for themselves or becoming the ever growing population of the workforce that is creating its income through the use of the internet. He even goes on to state that some people, who have mainstream jobs, are telecommuting from home to their job site never actually having to leave the home to provide the income needed to run the household. He states that education may be headed the same way as the job force. Ã¢â¬Å"TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s adolescents would be better off pursuing a college degree, jumpi ng directly into the job market, engaging in public service, or taking on a vocational apprenticeship.Ã¢â¬ (Pink) Pink goes on to explain the different ideals of home schooling which include: Ã¢â¬Å"A renaissance of apprenticeships, a flowering of teenage entrepreneurship, a greater diversity of academic courses, a boom in national service, and a backlash against the standards.Ã¢â¬ (Pink) Furthermore, he goes on to state that those students who were home schooled, free learners know how to continue their education throughout the rest of their lives. On the other hand, Maya Angelou was very proud of the day she graduated from high school. She shows the reader through a bunch of similes that she uses in the piece and she describes the graduates of her class Ã¢â¬Å"Like travelers with exotic
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Rebuttal Argument - Essay Example Wild animals still entail the intrinsic trait of being unsecure. Therefore, people ought to vision beyond their passions and seek to secure themselves. Another reason for not legalizing the taming of exotic animals is that of common sense (USA Today). Wild animals are meant to be as such. Therefore, people should cage normal pets as opposed to the exotic ones. This is because there are animals designated to be pets and others meant to stay in the natural stay. This general sense is what those keeping wild animals lack. In addition, wild animals can never be pets because of passion for the exotic animal. This refers to the verity that certain people take to mistreating the exotic animals. This happens when they fail to bestow their liberty of nature. Moreover, wild animals thrive in conditions with provisions of nature. Therefore, when someone takes to mistreating the animals, this depicts that they entail no fairness. Opinion countering that of the editorial is that there are exceedingly low chances of deaths caused by exotic animals. For instance, statistics prove that only 3.25 Percent of people become executed by exotic animals (USA Today). Therefore, wild animals depict exceedingly limited risks pertaining to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. There are no explanations as to why people should evade exotic animals becoming their pets. Another reason is that having wild animals as pets eradicates strain on the natural populace (USA Today). This explains that competition among wild animals becomes exceedingly negligible. Therefore, resources become sufficient for the other masses. On the contrary, tamed animals are availed with necessities by the owner. This is ensures that natural endowments are ample for animals. According to The Humane Society of the United States, another reason is that exotic populace acts as a backing for extinction of the wild life. This means that in events where wild animals become rare, the tamed ones save the situation.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Malaysia - Epitome of Asia - Essay Example Malaysia - Epitome of Asia Even though the state religion of Malaysia is Islam, the country gives its people the freedom of choice and holds no barriers to any faith the people may choose to follow. They are given the right of their opinions and no one is forceful of their beliefs on the others. Malaysia is always welcoming new people to let them explore the country to fall in love with its natural beautiful sights. The people there share the same perspective and have a welcoming nature and always try to maintain a friendly relation with anyone they might know outside of their country, speaking on a personal note. Location Malaysia can be found near the far right side when viewing a global map, near the equator. It may seem a little distant from the rest of the world because of its location but that has not proven the people there to take the choice of living in isolation. Malaysia is situated on the South China Sea and has itself divided in two parts of East Malaysia and Peninsular Malaysia. The country share s borders with three countries; Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei. The country solves its problem of being in a far off place by linking itself to countries, like Singapore, through a causeway while also sharing maritime boundaries with countries like, Philippines and Vietnam. Malaysia did not always have the place it has today in the world. Near the end of 18th and 19th centuries The British had their colonies established in the area and ruled the Malay Peninsula till 1948. It was in 1957 that Malaysia attained the freedom it has today and formed the Federation of Malaya. After the independence the country faced problems with Indonesia, Singapore which was a part of Malaysia for a time, also departed from the Malay Federations. Malaysia was able to succeed in diversifying its economy after the rule of Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohammad during the early years after independence. The country chose to develop its services, manufacturing and tourism to give boost to its economy and decided to let go of exporting of raw materials. When these policies proved to be of great advantage to the country, the following prime ministers decided to act upon them as well i.e. Najib bin Abdul Razzak. Geography Being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 67th largest country, Malaysia has a land area of 329,847 square kilometers (UMTECH 2012). Malaysia is the only country that has its land territory situated in both; mainland of the Asian continent and on the Malay Archipelago, the Malay sea studded with islands. The Peninsular Malaysia, one of the two parts that the country is divided in, contains 40 percent of the land mass of the country. It spreads 322 kilometers in width while itÃ¢â¬â¢s North to South extends up to 740 kilometers (Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2006). There is a series of mountains that divides the Peninsular MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s East and West coasts, Titiwangsa Mountains, also called Main Range (Britannica). Main Rage is a mountain range that is heavily forested and is composed of igneous rocks and granite. Most of the mountain has eroded and created a karst landscapes. The other half of Malaysia, East Malaysia, has a coastline of 2,607 kilometers which is divided among its hills, valleys, interiors of mountains and the coastal regions. East Mal aysia also consists of the tallest mountain in the country, Mount Kinabalu. The mountain holds the height of 13,436 ft, and ranges between the country and IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, August 23, 2019
MANAGINGPEOPLE&ORGANISATIONS - Essay Example The transition from bureaucratic phase to post -bureaucratic phase involved diminishing emphasis on formalised internal control mechanism and organization structure. This organizational transformation represents wider cultural, economic and social development along with the fast changing technology, which has also modernized the production techniques. It is very important for the organizations to focus on the outcomes and results as it would help in achieving competitive advantage. The next portion of the study would be reflecting whether the employees only focus on the salary, wages paid etc. It would provide justifications whether to accept this view or not. Empowerment to the Employees in Post-bureaucratic Phase The study tries to show whether getting money at the end of the month is the ultimate goal or objective of the employees and this requires highlighting several factors that are associated with the motivation, goals and objectives of the employees. The reason behind the tra nsitional phase from bureaucratic to post-bureaucratic organizational structure has also been discussed earlier. The transition focused on the work culture, which would ultimately improve the outcomes of the organization (Josserand, Teo and Clegg, 2006). ... This would positively impact the performance of the organization. Empowerment is the most important component in the post-bureaucratic phase. It reflects awarding authority or power to those employees who are lower in the organizational hierarchy. This intention of empowerment in this post -bureaucratic phase has been done for creating a work environment where the employees of the organizations would be the decision makers. This would involve awarding the employees with the authority to make various decisions so that they begin feeling a sense of personal identification and individuality. However, the fundamental concept behind this empowerment was that it would allow the business in flourishing fast. The empowerment would allow the organizational employees in functioning without high managerial governance and would increase the organizational performance. It is so because the human element is highly responsible behind disintegration of the potential. The idea of empowerment is for a llowing the employees to make decisions based on their own knowledge, expertise and experience. This would statistically increase the overall efficiency of the organization. However, empowerment and reward by promoting to higher level hierarchy would enable the employees to implement their leadership skills. These act as high motivational factors for the employees, enabling them to be loyal to the organization and give their best. This gives them a scope to rise in the hierarchy level by proving their excellence. The leadership skills are big reasons of motivation to the employees and they work hard to prove themselves in order to experience this skill. Getting liberty to take own decisions and handle several business situations give them high satisfaction and this
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Progressivism, Bonus Army and the Civil Rights Movement - Essay Example With its reform agenda, the progressivism movement was aimed at achieving efficiency in all areas of society as a response to changes made by modernization. It was determined to be aimed at addressing ideas, impulses, and major issues stemming from modernized changes in the American society. Its ideologies centered on democracy, proper municipal administration, elimination of governmental corruption, proper education for everyone, and many others. Under the theme of democracy, there was also instigation of the women suffrage movement and elimination of corruption by black voters (Roark et al. 234-235). In the municipal administration, there was creation of proper laws and legislation to govern cities as well as the creation of a bureaucratic administration system leading to the creation of a democratic municipal administration. To the progressives, corruption was a source of inefficiency and waste leading to formation of laws to curb it. The progressives also worked hard to improve a nd expand public and private education in America at all levels (Roark et al. 465). For a very long time now, America has been operating efficiently in several sectors of the economy as well as government as a result of this movement. The bonus army was a protest that was launched by the World War I veterans 1932 demanding payment of their bonuses after the congress had voted to give them these bonuses for their services in the war in 1924. However, even though they asked for these bonuses to be released to them in 1932, they were meant to be released in 1945 (McPherson 134). They marched into Washington D.C. to demand for immediate release of their bonuses. When the senate went to vote for the bill requiring the veterans to be paid their bonuses, it turned out that the outcome was not successful as the senate defeated the bill by 62 to 18 votes. This showed that the veterans were not going to be paid their bonuses. The veterans were dispatched by the state police where two of their members were shot dead and later the intervention of the army which led to most of them being seriously injured (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 78). In a nutshell, this protest did not yield any fruits for the propagators. On the other hand, looking into the American Civil Rights Movement, almost a similar situation comes out but with slight success realized. It was a movement that relied on biblical connotations to fight racial segregation. This was under the leadership of Martin Luther King Junior who was a black clergyman. This was a movement that was instigated after the slavery period had ended and sought to end the massive discriminatory practices that had been instigated against the black people for a very long time. Most of the propagators were jailed and some killed in the quest for a society that is deeply rooted in equality. As a result of these struggles, laws were enacted propagating equality for all Americans. However, this was only in theory but practically, many black Americans hav e suffered discrimination for a continued period of time (Roark et al. 562). In conclusion, the progressive movemen
Homosexuality and God Essay LGBT is an initialism that collectively refers to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. In use since the 1990s, the term LGBT is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which itself started replacing the phrase gay community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, which many within the community in question felt did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred. The initialism has become mainstream as a self-designation and has been adopted by the majority sexuality and gender identity-based community centers and media in the United States and some other English-speaking countries. The term LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures and is sometimes used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or cisgender instead of exclusively to people who are homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer and/or are questioning their sexual identity as LGBTQ, recorded since 1996. In Malaysia, LGBT rights are partially recognized. LGBT individuals encompass all races and ethnicities, religions, and social classes. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions are not asked on most national or State surveys, making it difficult to estimate the number of LGBT individuals and their health needs. Research suggests that LGBT individuals face health disparities linked to societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of their civil and human rights. Discrimination against LGBT persons has been associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and suicide. Experiences of violence and victimization are frequent for LGBT individuals, and have long-lasting effects on the individual and the community. Personal, family, and social acceptance of sexual orientation and gender identity affects the mental health and personal safety of LGBT individuals. It is important to recognize the difference between sexual orientation and sexual behavior as well as the differences among sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender role. Sexual orientation is the affectional or loving attraction to another person. It can be considered as ranging along a continuum from same-sex attraction only at one end of the continuum to pposite-sex attraction only at the other end. Heterosexuality is the attraction to persons of the opposite sex; homosexuality, to persons of the same sex; and bisexuality, to both sexes. Sexual orientation can be seen as part of a continuum ranging from same-sex attraction only (at one end of the continuum) to opposite-sex attraction only (at the other end of the continuum). Sexual behavior, or sexual activity, differs from sexual orientation and alone does not define someone as an LGBT individual. Any person may be capable of sexual behavior with a person of the same or opposite sex, but an individual knows his or her longingsÃ¢â¬âerotic and affectionalÃ¢â¬âand which sex is more likely to satisfy those needs. It is necessary to draw a distinction between sexual orientation and sexual behavior. Not every person with a homosexual or bisexual orientation is sexually active. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual orientation does not tell us if she/he is sexually active or does it define her /his specific sexual behaviors. Similarly, sexual behavior alone does not define orientation. A personal awareness of having a sexual orientation that is not exclusively heterosexual is one way a person identifies herself or himself as an LGBT person. Or a person may have a sexual identity that differs from his or her biological sexÃ¢â¬âthat is, a person may have been born a male but identifies and feels more comfortable as a female. Sexual orientation and gender identity are two independent variables in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of himself or herself. Sexual identity is the personal and unique way that a person perceives his or her own sexual desires and sexual expressions. Biological sex is the biological distinction between men and women. Gender is the concept of maleness and masculinity or femaleness and femininity. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s gender identity is the sense of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self as male or female and does not refer to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual orientation or gender role. Sex refers to the biological characteristics of a person at birth, while gender relates to his or her perception of being male or female and is known as the gender role. Gender role refers to the behaviors and desires to act in certain ways that are viewed as masculine or feminine by a particular culture. A culture usually labels behaviors as masculine or feminine, but these behaviors are not necessarily a direct component of gender or gender identity. It is common in our culture to call the behaviors, styles, or interests shown by males that are usually associated with women Ã¢â¬Å"effeminateÃ¢â¬ and to call the boys who behave this way Ã¢â¬Å"sissies. Women or girls who have interests usually associated with men are labeled Ã¢â¬Å"masculineÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"butch,Ã¢â¬ and the girls are often called Ã¢â¬Å"tomboys. Ã¢â¬ Transsexuals are people with the biological characteristics of one sex who identify themselves as the opposite gender and have had some type of surgical alteration and/or hormone treatments that changes their bodiesÃ¢â¬â¢ appearance in alignment with their identity. While understanding the various concepts used in sexual orientation in general, it is very imperative to define in specific details definition of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) accordingly. Lesbian which is originally a Greek word, is a term most widely used in the English language to describe sexual and romantic desire between females. The word may be used as a noun, to refer to women who identify themselves or who are characterized by others as having the primary attribute of female homosexuality, or as an adjective, to describe characteristics of an object or activity related to female same-sex desire. Lesbian as a concept, used to differentiate women with a shared sexual orientation, is a 20th-century construct. Gay is a romantic or sexual attraction or behavior toward/between males. Gay is a word (a noun or an adjective) that primarily refers to a homosexual person. The word gay arrived in English during the 12th century from Old French gai, most likely deriving ultimately from a Germanic source. The term was originally used to refer to feelings of being carefree, happy, or bright and showy; it had also come to acquire some connotations of immorality as early as 1637. The terms use as a reference to homosexuality may date as early as the late 19th century, but its use gradually increased in the 20th century. In modern English, gay has come to be used as an adjective, and as a noun, referring to the people, especially to men, and the practices and cultures associated with homosexuality. By the end of the 20th century, the word gay was recommended by major LGBT groups and style guides to describe people attracted to members of the same sex. Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction or behavior toward males and females. The term is especially used in the context of human sexual attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward men and women. It is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation, along with a heterosexual and a homosexual orientation, all a part of the heterosexualÃ¢â¬âhomosexual continuum. People who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other may identify themselves as bisexual. Transgender is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies to vary from culturally conventional gender roles. Transgender is the state of ones gender identity (self-identification as woman, man, neither or both) not matching ones assigned sex (identification by others as male, female or intersex based on physical/genetic sex). Ã¢â¬ Transgender does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation; transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, polysexual, or asexual; some may consider conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate or inapplicable to them. The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but includes: Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender roles, but combines or moves between these. People who were assigned a sex, usually at birth and based on their genitals, but who feel that this is a false or incomplete description of themselves. Non-identification with, or non-presentation as, the sex (and assumed gender) one was assigned at birth. A transgender individual may have characteristics that are normally associated with a particular gender, identify elsewhere on the traditional gender continuum, or exist outside of it as other, agender, Genderqueer, or third gender. Sexuality and gender have different impacts in each cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, attitudes, and organizations. More secular and Ã¢â¬Å"modernizedÃ¢â¬ societies often have more favorable treatment of LGBT individuals than societies which value tradition and r eligious piety. However, accurate generalizations are difficult to make; even within Malaysia, attitudes towards LGBT individuals vary from person to person. Cultural differences in LGBT issues have wide-ranging effects. Other cultures may have different ways of expressing affectionÃ¢â¬âfor example, in India, it is common for same-sex friends to hold hands without any assumption of a romantic connectionÃ¢â¬âor of categorizing gender and sexualityÃ¢â¬âfor example, in parts of Latin America, a man is not considered gay if he engages in same-sex intercourse as the insertive artner. Thus, American English terms and conceptualizations of LGBT issues may not directly translate. The visibility of LGBT individuals and organizations varies by culture. Some cultures have an underground LGBT scene where LGBT individuals are tolerated as long as they remain mainly closeted, whereas other cultures may have a more open and organized community of LGBT individuals. In addition, some cultures may provide legal protection for LGBT individuals and recognize their partnerships, while other cultures may criminalize same-sex intercourse. Globally in some country; For example in Malaysia, Cross-dressing(Gender identity/expression) is not technically a crime. However, transgender individuals have often been arrested by police officers under the civil laws governing public indecency, and if they are Muslim, can be further charged by religious officers under Sharia Laws for impersonating women. For example, in 1998, Forty-five Muslim transvestites were charged and convicted in court for dressing as women, and twenty-three more transgender persons faced similar fines and imprisonment in 1999. Finally, there may be major differences within the LGBT community in a specific culture; for example, in parts of southeastern Asia it is considered culturally acceptable for a man to have sex with a feminine transgendered man, while there are no such provisions for women having sex with transgendered women. Homosexuality: The Christian Perspective (LESBIAN, GAY Bisexuality) In a world of moral confusion and ethical compromise, the principles for which the Holy Bible stands, is directing the Christians in the right path to God and the way of life. The Christian point of view is based solely upon the Bible, the divinely inspired Word of God. A truly Christian standard of ethics is the conduct of divine revelation, not of statistical research or of public opinion. For the Christian, the Bible is the final authority for both belief and behaviour. The Explicitly the Bible teach about homosexuality can be considered as basic because, if we accept Gods Word on the subject of homosexuality, we benefit from His adequate answer to this problem as seen in Christianity. This project is concerned only with the Christian or biblical view of homosexuality. The Bible has much to say about sex sins in general for a view in Homosexuality in Christian perspective. First, there is adultery. Adultery in the natural sense is sexual intercourse of a married person with someone other than his or her own spouse. It is condemned in both the Old and New Testaments (Exodus 20:14; I Cor. 6:9, 10). Christ forbids dwelling upon the thoughts, the free play of ones imagination that leads to adultery (Matthew 5:28). Second, there is fornication, the illicit sex acts of unmarried persons which is likewise forbidden (I Corinthians 5:1; 6:13, 18; Ephesians 5:3). Then there is homosexuality which likewise is condemned in Scripture. The Apostle Paul, writing by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, declares that homosexuality shall not inherit the kingdom of God (I Corinthians 6:9; 10). Now Paul does not single out the homosexual as a special offender. He includes fornicators, idolators, adulterers, thieves, covetous persons, drunkards, revilers and extortioners. And then he adds the comment that some of the Christians at Corinth had been delivered from these very practices: And such were some of you: But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the spirit of our God (I Corinthians 6:11). All of the sins mentioned in this passage are condemned by God, but just as there was hope in Christ for the Corinthians, so is there hope for all of us. Homosexuality is an illicit lust forbidden by God. He said to His people Israel, Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination (Leviticus 18:22). If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them (Leviticus 20:13). In these passages homosexuality is condemned as a prime example of sin, a sexual perversion. The Christian can neither alter Gods viewpoint nor depart from it. In the Bible sodomy is a synonym for homosexuality. God spoke plainly on the matter when He said, There shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel (Deuteronomy 23:17). The whore and the sodomite are in the same category. A sodomite was not an inhabitant of Sodom nor a descendant of an inhabitant of Sodom, but a man who had given himself to homosexuality, and the unnatural vice for which Sodom was known. Let us look at the passages in question: Ã¢â¬Å"But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house around, old and young, all the people from every quarter: And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men hich came in to thee this night? Bring them out unto us, that we may know them. And Lot went out at the door unto them, and shut the door after him, And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly. Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof. (Genesis 19:4-8)Ã¢â¬ The Hebrew word for know in verse 5 is yada `, a sexual term. It is used frequently to denote sexual intercourse (Genesis 4:1, 17, 25; Matthew 1:24, 25). The message in the context of Genesis 19 is clear. Lot pled with the men to do not so wickedly. Homosexuality is wickedness and must be recognized as such else there is no hope for the homosexual who is asking for help to be extricated from his sinful way of life. Romans 1:24-27; I Timothy 1:10 and Jude 7. If one takes these Scriptures seriously, homosexuality will be recognized as an evil. The Romans passage is unmistakably clear. Paul attributes the moral depravity of men and women to their rejection of the truth of God (1:25). They refused to retain God in their knowledge (1:28), thereby dethroning God and deifying themselves. The Old Testament had clearly condemned homosexuality but in Pauls day there were those persons who rejected its teaching. Because of their rejection of Gods commands He punished their sin by delivering them over to it. The philosophy of substituting Gods Word with ones own reasoning commenced with Satan. He introduced it at the outset of the human race by suggesting to Eve that she ignore Gods orders, assuring her that in so doing she would become like God with the power to discern good and evil (Genesis 3:1-5). That was Satans big lie. Paul said that when any person rejects Gods truth, his mind becomes reprobate, meaning void of sound judgment. The reprobate mind, having rejected Gods truth, is not capable of discerning good and evil. In Romans 1:26-31 twenty-three punishable sins are listed with homosexuality leading the list. Paul wrote, For this cause God gave them up into vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meet. Ã¢â¬ (Romans 1:26, 27). These verses are telling us that homosexuals suffer in their body and personality the inevitable consequences of their wrong doing. Notice that the behaviour of the homosexual is described as a vile affection (1:26). The Greek word translated vile (atimia) means filthy, dirty, evil, and dishonourable. The word affection in Greek is pathos, used by the Greeks of either a good or bad desire. Here in the context of Romans it is used in a bad sense. The vile affection is a degrading passion, a shameful lust. Both the desire (lusting after) and the act of homosexuality are condemned in the Bible as sin.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Rousseaus Argument on General Will Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. He was born on June 28, 1712 in Geneva, Switzerland. Rousseau won recognition as a writer, although the authorities make every effort to suppress Rousseaus writings. His notion of individual liberty and his convictions about political unity helped to fuel the romantic spirit of the French Revolution. Jean-Jacques Rousseau authored a series of philosophical essays between 1754 and his death in 1778 that had a decisive impact on political events in Europe and the world at large. A political and moral philosopher during the Enlightenment, Jean-Jacques Rousseau developed provocative ideas about human nature, education, and the desired relationship between individuals and the ideal society. Like Locke and Hobbes, Rousseau is a state of nature theorist. This means he starts his argument with individuals wandering about in a state of nature and then brings them together to show how society is created through their social contract. Rousseau published Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality in 1754, arguing that the natural, moral state of man had been corrupted by society. Rousseau saw a fundamental divide between society and human nature. Rousseau contended that man was good by nature, a noble savage when in the state of nature , History,for Russeau,is the story of corruption,wherebya healthy innocence gives away to a corrupt sophistication with the onset of farming and techonology . (Lecture notes) In Rousseaus philosophy, Men and woman in the state of nature are seen as simple free creatures at ease with themselves .To make this more clear men and woman in the state of nature are self -regarding, they feel a compassion for the suffering of others. Human beings in the state of nature experience a relatively healthy form of Self-love, amour de soi. This benign self -regard, though, is turned into more sinister form of self-love, amour proper in the development of more sophisticated societies. (Lecture notes) Jean-Jacques Rousseaus most important work is The Social Contract ,which coined the basis for a legitimate political order based on the social contract that is formed by the society from state of nature to civil society and state. The book was published in 1762, where it became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the social contract theory. The book begins with the dramatic opening lines, Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks he the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they. Rousseau claimed that the state of nature was a primitive condition without law or morality. This is the basic principle that he tried to put forward in his writing. In the state of nature that describe by Rousseau is where men are possess with their personal liberty. In the state of nature there are no legitimate and political authorities. As society developed, division of labour and private property required the human to adopt institutions of law. Men lives in isolation and fear of conflict, but due to the motivation of self improvement, development of society to govern their rights that they possess men gave up the rights and liberty in order to form government. Rousseau thinks that the fear and the pressure made the people abandoning their natural rights to came and joins through the social contract into civil society. The problem Rousseau poses in the beginning of The Social Contract is how to reconcile individual liberty with civil society. His solution is to offer two conceptions of liberty, natural liberty and civil liberty, which is the superior of the two. The forming of societies involves a social contract in which individuals sacrifice freedom in the name of self preservation What a man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and the absolute right to anything that tempts him and that he can take; what he gains by the social contract is civil liberty we must clearly distinguish between natural liberty, which has no limit but the physical power of the individual concerned, and civil liberty, which is limited by the general will man acquires with civil society, moral freedom, which alone makes man the master of himself obedience to a law one prescribes to oneself is freedom. (Rousseau, 1968:p 65) According to Rousseau, no one will give up his liberty without getting something in return. We all agree that people are born free, but for Rousseau they need to enter into social contract to achieve the natural freedom . Men by nature are possessed with individual liberty, but men gave up this liberty in order to enter into Social Contract .They giving up the liberty in order to receive social freedom , In giving up the liberty in order to form state with legitimate authority it is must the based on the condition of general will.. In other words Rousseau thinks that the natural independence of man in state of nature is exchanged for the public freedom of citizenship. General will is introduced by Rousseau as a foundation of a transition from state of nature towards civil state, Rousseau claims in The Social Contract to have solved a fundamental problem (Book 1, iv) Find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole of its joint strength the person and property of each associate and under which each of them, uniting himself to all, will obey himself alone and remain free as before. (Rousseau the Social Contract p 54) the concept of general will used by Rousseau means the will by which a group of people enter into social contract ,it refers to the will of the citizen the state It tends toward the public utility (Rousseau, 1996: 477) The general will is always right and promote public interest. The general will can be seen as distinct from a sum of coinciding private interests. This does not however mean that the general will is not in the interest of each individual. It is, in so far as It is not the interests of others that we are to follow but rather the interests of all, all includes us.(Hall an introduction to Rousseau p.73) For Rousseau living according to the general will instead of individual will are namely that it is noble and good to do so, but also because a person achieves civil liberty by doing so. Obedience to the law one has prescribed for oneself is liberty. (Rousseau, Block 3, p.111) Rousseau believes that only general will can direct the society towards common good. The idea of the general will is at the heart of Rousseaus philosophy. When individuals have been transformed into a state by enter into social contract ,they are united by common goods .The general will is the will of a state as a whole . The concept of the general will is probably easier to understand as the will of all. Rousseau specifically makes distinguish between the two concepts about common will, the will of all and the general will: There is often a great deal of difference between the will of all and the general will; the latter considers only the common interest, while the former takes private interest into account, and is no more than a sum of particular wills: but take away from these same wills the pluses and minuses that cancel one another, and the general will remains as the sum of the differences Social Contract, (Vol. IV, p. 146). The general will is not the will of the majority. The general will is not the sum of all the separate wills of individuals who enter the social contract. It is not majority decision .It is the general will only when it aims at the common good and when it is supported by all citizens of good will. It is a moral, qualitative idea .The general will in action is sovereign. He therefore insisted on the sovereignty of the people, who are united individuals in the general will, because their common interest let them seek for the most suitable form of government and society to fulfil this basic need. Rousseau also argues that sovereignty should be in the hands of the people, he also makes a sharp distinction between sovereignty and government. The government is charged with implementing and enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller group of citizens Rousseau theory of sovereignty differs obviously from those other political philosophers including Hobbes, Rousseau asserts that the people should exercise sovereignty rather than bend to the whims of an absolute monarch. Common interest of the public could not be preserve and protected of there is no medium of separation of power and check and balance in governing the state. The ideas of Rousseau that he coined in his book of Social Contract would gives an impact on modern form of democratic society based on his understanding of general will and theory of sovereignty would bring us the understanding of the power of people in modern society. His ideas are near to what we have today in understand the good government and democratic society. The importance of the will for Rousseau was not merely social, but also psychological. He knew that men behaved differently in groups than in isolation, but without a perfect knowledge of the inclinations of individuals one could not understand society (ibid.,p. 202). CONCLUSION For Rousseau the object of General Will is the common good not what individuals want for themselves. The common good is taken to be the aim of moral choices. The General Will is the will each person has as a citizen of moral agents. It is not that the common good is what we morally ought to aim at, but that this is what we really want. A person may want something that is not good for him or her. What is good for someone is what he would want if he had complete wisdom. For the General will theory a mans real good is what he really wants although he does not know it. Since the state aims at securing the common good the state or the law is the concrete expression of General Will. We ought ,therefore ,to obey the state, and if we do we are following our real will: the will that is the general or common to all members of the state If an individual does not realise what he really wants and is unwilling to fall into lines ,the state is justified in forcing him to conform .
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
At 7:12PM on Wednesday, March19, 2003, President Bush authorized a full-scale war on Iraq and the Saddam Hussein led regime by uttering just two simple words. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go,Ã¢â¬ President George W. Bush said to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfield Wednesday at the close of a nearly four-hour meeting in the Oval Office. The war on Iraq, which has been given the title Ã¢â¬Å"Operation: Iraqi FreedomÃ¢â¬ , is the result of months of HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to let United Nations weapons inspectors into Iraq. The U.N. suspects that Hussein has been building and harboring Ã¢â¬Å"weapons of mass destructionÃ¢â¬ into Iraq. This problem goes as far back as the early Ã¢â¬Ë90Ã¢â¬â¢s when former President Bush initiated the Gulf War on account of very similar issues. Aside from not letting U.N. inspectors into Iraq, Hussein has been a brutal dictator towards his own people for the better part of a decade. President Bush says that one of the main objectives of winning this wa r is to completely rebuild Iraq and make it a safe place for people to live. To do this, the American troops must take Hussein out of power. The beginning of the war was preceded by a forty-eight hour period that President Bush had given Hussein for a chance to comply with the U.N. and avoid war. President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s final attempts at peace were not accepted and he began what the Pentagon is calling a Ã¢â¬Å"decapitation attackÃ¢â¬ . More than forty satellite-guided Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired from U.S. warships in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. In the days soon afterward, American troops advanced into Iraq and launched a head-on attack towards IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s capital city of Baghdad. Iraqi officials reported that only in the first two days of these attacks, that seventy-two missiles had hit Baghdad, killing four Iraqi officials. Another school year is coming to a close, as is a chapter in the senior class of 2003Ã¢â¬â¢s lives. As the excitement escalades and the dream of leaving high school is becoming more and more of a reality, the seniors are realizing that their senior year is different from previous senior classes. They are graduating during a time of war, a time that could possibly be on of the biggest events in their lives. They will all be affected by it, some of them might be in it, and none of them will forget it. Ã¢â¬Å"I will remember this senior year, and time of war, as I have remembered a specific passage from the book of Ezekial.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Perl Harbor In 1941, one of the largest American military defeats occurred. An entire naval fleet was destroyed, hundreds were killed, all before 09.00 on a Sunday. The US did not have any knowledge of this attack, partially because of ignorance, partially because of the military strategies of their Japanese opponents. The Japanese attack on the US naval base of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was a classic case of "It will not happen to me!" Although the US suspected Japanese actions, they did not take a defensive stance as they believed an attack would never touch their soil. Through an examination of military history, tactics and eye witness descriptions, it will be proven that the US had no knowledge of the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. In the years before 1941, the war saw little American military action. After the collapse of France, American President Roosevelt promised his county that no American troops would be sent to Europe to aid in the battle against Hitler and his powerful army. These promises caused Roosevelt to be criticized by his closest advisors for his indecisiveness about declaring war . The President's defense to these accusations was he did not want to out step public opinion. As well, he believed American intervention would cause a 'mortal blow' to the Allies cause. In reality, the advisors, as well as Roosevelt, knew that Britain could not win the war without American armed intervention. Two oceans to the East, Japan was deep into a war or her own. Japanese forces were concentrated on the Chinese front to conquer and obtain. As a result of her unpopular declaration of war on China, Japan's fuel supply from the US was eliminated. Consequently, the Japanese turned to Indonesia to continue the supply of fuel for her war efforts. Fuel talks broke down as the Dutch, who were in control of the Indonesian fuel supply and, under heavy influence from the US, would not supply Japan with fuel. Desperately needing fuel to continue the war, Japan first thought of attacking Indonesia, but feared US intervention. After some thought, Japanese leaders decided that an attack directly on the US would be more appropriate to bring the US to the fuel supplies negotiating table . The first acknowledgment that Japan was a war threat came on November 27, 1941 when Washington ordered a 'War Warning'. The US feared a Japanese attack, not on America, but on the Philippines. American military leaders took little or no precautions upon the issue of warning.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
AMD vs. Pentium Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A couple of years ago when Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) introduced it’s K5 microprocessor, the phrase “too little, too late'; was plastered across their name countless times. At that time, if anyone were to name an underdog to the Intel dominated microprocessor market, Cyrix with their dirt-cheap 5x86 processor would have been the favorite. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Intel had been the only processor that could handle day-to-day functions at reasonable speeds. Such simple tasks as word processing and calculations, then later gaming and educational work, the processors were unable to perform. The Pentium processor was introduced in 1994; no company could compete with Intel at this point. It took until 1997, for AMD to even be noticed, and then later in 1997 the AMD k6 series was introduced. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When AMD’s k6 was introduced to compete with the Pentium!! Processor, it fell short in all areas, except one-price. It was the cheapest micro-processing chip (chip) on the market. The downside to this chip is that it did not follow the same format as Intel chips. It needed a different motherboard, a socket-7 motherboard. This hurt AMD’s chances at the beginning, but in early 1998 they unveiled their mighty K6-2 processor. The K6-2 Processor was “bigger, better, and cheaper.'; The processor ran on a 100mhz bus, while Intel’s chips still ran on a 66mhz bus, this made AMD’s chip faster. It also was nearly 16% cheaper than any Intel based Pentium!! computer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The gaming community accepted the k6-2 with cautious, but open, arms. With their new SIMD-Enhanced (Single Instruction Multiple Data) 3Dnow! the graphics this processor were able to produce were amazing, for the time, due to the use of floating point intensive programs. With the new processor and their own design they were not only keeping up with the giant Intel, but they were innovating. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Intel answered back with its “SSE';, which was to be included in its Pentium!!! processors. This new enhancement was to push graphics acceleration twice as fast as AMD’s 3Dnow! could. When Intel prematurely released the Pentium!!! processor it fell short. Many people got chances to take the new P3 for a run, and they were barely faster than the similarly clocked AMD K6-2’s. Not only that, but they sold for over four times the price. When news of this reached the dealers and public, K6-2s sales had sky rocketed to 43.9 percent of the market, while Intel’s dropped to 40.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The Cabin in the Woods 1. Joss Whedon says that Ã¢â¬ËThe Cabin in the WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ is Ã¢â¬Å"your basic horror movie taken apart; five kids go to a cabin in the woods to have a fun weekend of partying and possibly sexÃ¢â¬ ¦ and are therefore dismemberedÃ¢â¬ . Whedon and Goddard have in essence tried to create a movie with roots tied to the horror genre; it is simply your common slasher movie where the characters are killed off one by one till there is either one person left or none for that matter. The Cabin in the WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ also has ties to other genres such as comedy, this can be seen in scenes such as where they are all sitting around in the main room, playing truth or dare, and Jules is dared to kiss the wolfs head on the wall, also in the scene where Marty has a bong that can retract into a coffee mug. Ã¢â¬ËThe Cabin in the Woods' turns the horror genre on itsÃ head. The film is a satire and paysÃ homageÃ to some ofÃ the great scary movies from the past such as Sam Raimi's Ã¢â¬ËEvil Dead' and also Dario Argento's Ã¢â¬ËSuspira'.Another genre that is incorporated into the movie is sci-fi. We see this when Marty and Dana descend in the lift to where the scientists are, we then see various Ã¢â¬ËnightmareÃ¢â¬â¢ characters with some being human and the majority being made up creatures, this is part of the sci-fi genre as it usually contains monsters and mythical creatures that are not found in real life and questions normality. 2.The narrative structure of Ã¢â¬ËThe Cabin in the WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ is linear. It starts with equilibrium where everything is going well, this is seen when all of the 5 are meeting up together getting prepared to start on their journey. This is then followed by disruption where the first character is killed off which would be Jules. The quest for restoration is found in the scene where Dana and Holden go into the lift and look to stop all of it.The equilibrium being restored can be seen for two sides, one being that it is restored as the operation is shut down, but the other side being that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t restored as the whole world ends because of the Ã¢â¬ËgodsÃ¢â¬â¢ that are unleashed. 3. There are many different representations of gender in Ã¢â¬ËThe Cabin in the WoodsÃ¢â¬â¢. Firstly, the two women, Jules and Dana, are defined as The Whore and The Virgin which is two opposite ends of the spectrum whose deaths are meant to serve as bookends for the others.The order of deaths is irrelevant except in the case of the women. Jules, as the corrupted whore, has to die first, and Dana, the Virgin, has to die last,Ã thatÃ¢â¬â¢s if she dies at all. As Hadley says, Ã¢â¬Å"The virginÃ¢â¬â¢s death is optional as long as itÃ¢â¬â¢s last. Ã¢â¬ The female characters are defined only by their sexuality; nothing else about them really matters. In certain scenes Laura MulveyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the Ã¢â¬Ëmale gazeÃ¢â¬â¢ is prevalent. When Dana is getting undressed in her room, Holden f inds out that he can see through a window into her room, but she canÃ¢â¬â¢t.We see the camera follow Dana up and down as she takes off her clothes, then the camera switches back round to Holden, who we see watching her but trying to look away at the same time. Still, the men donÃ¢â¬â¢t fare much better with their prescribed roles. They are given the roles of The Athlete, The Scholar, and The Fool. The Athlete is your typical American jock who has a naturally athletic and muscly body and loves sports. The scholar is represented as being a book worm whose only passion is education and reading books and the fool is represented as being basically dumb.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ryanair: Its vulnerability and exposure to the macroeconomic environment Business vulnerability is a measure of how susceptible an organization is to external events and the possible consequential impact on its business costs and profits. In this essay, I will assess the vulnerability of Ryanair and its degree of expose to macroeconomic shocks. I will also analyse RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s performance since 2000 in comparison to its rival BA, as well as their strategies in how effective they are in raising profits and minimizing their exposure.Ryanair is a low cost Irish airline and one of the most profitable in the airline industry. However, it can be seen as vulnerable and exposed to macroeconomic shocks. To a degree this is due to IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s openness. Desmond Gillmor describes it as Ã¢â¬Å"one of the most open of economies,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"because of this high degree of openness, the economy is strongly influenced by the external conditions prevailing in the international economic system. Ã¢â¬ (Gillmor 1985, p. 5) The airline industry in which Ryanair operates is fairly elastic as shown below. (Knight, B. 2006, p. 14)From the graph, one can see that if the GDP increases or decreases by 1 per cent, the demand for air travel will increase or decrease by 1. 7 per cent: air travel and Ryanair is fairly exposed. A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s average total cost curve (shown below) and the steepness of it can express the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability. The steepness of the curve is mainly determined by the scale of fixed costs and as a result, those firms will experience more volatility in their financial performance. In addition, increasing returns to labour which is particularly found in professional services also impacts on the gradient.Furthermore, firms which are dependent on external inputs, for example, in construction, are vulnerable to shifts in the curve due to increases in the costs of their inputs. output saucer e. g. shoe shiner flute e. g. airlines ATC output saucer e. g. shoe shiner flute e. g. airlines ATC The Ã¢â¬ËfluteÃ¢â¬â¢ curve shown above reinforces the vulnerability of Ryanair due to its steepness. This can be explained by high fixed costs such as a large number of fleet and the heavy dependency on external inputs such as fuel.The graph below shows that since 2003 Ryanair has more than doubled their fleet to 163 aircraft. (Ryanair, 2008, p. 3) The latest ChairmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Report released by Ryanair reports on the effect of fuel prices: Ã¢â¬Å"The high and rising price of fuel is of major concern to Ryanair and the entire aviation industry. Last year our hedging programme delivered fuel at an average cost of $65 per barrel. Today we are facing prices of approximately $130 a barrel. Ryanair has responded to these higher oil prices by reducing costs across all other areas. Ã¢â¬ (Ryanair, 2008, p. ) They are also exposed to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, the extent to which they made a loss of over Ã¢â ¬5m due to changes in the American dollar and British Sterling exchange rates against the euro. This exposure can be minimized by hedging with financial derivatives. Even though Ryanair incur costs that they have little control over such as fuel, Ã¢â¬Å"there are others that will influence the costs per seat-km flown that they can influence. These include aircraft utilisation, aircraft turnround times, seat pitch, the use of fewer crew and cheaper secondary airports, along with direct selling and paperless ticketing. (Pitfield, D. E. 2007, p. 77) These factors all form a part of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to penetrate the market further and reduce its vulnerability by exploiting market imperfections. Ã¢â¬Å"Ryanair has responded to these higher oil prices by reducing costs across all other areas. A company wide pay freeze was implemented and redundancies have been suffered at our Dublin call centre. Significant cost reductions have also been achieved on airport, maintenance, and handling contracts, an d we will benefit from the addition to our fleet of cheaper and more fuel efficient aircraft.We have also increased our charges for baggage and airport check-in as we continue to encourage passengers to avail of web check-in and travel with carry on luggage only. Ã¢â¬ (Ryanair, 2008, p. 4) They have even gone as far as planning to close down their check-in desks and the possibility of charging passengers to use the on-flight toilet facilities. Source: Ryanair Annual Reports Ryanair is one of the largest airlines in terms of passenger numbers (REF) and has continuously grown in size and value over time as shown above.The extent of such an expanding firm is conveyed over the last eight years as RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s profits have more than quadrupled. However, there have been drops in profits in 2004 and 2008. In 2004, the airline was hugely affected by the conflicts in Iraq, the renewed threat of terrorism and endless increasing oil prices. However, in this same period, Ryanair managed to launch new bases in Rome and Barcelona, launch 73 new routes, takeover their competitor Buzz for a knock-down price and carry more passengers than BA in the European market.The reason for the decrease in profits in 2008 was due to increases in fuel prices and significantly increased airport charges, particularly at their largest bases at Stansted and Dublin. British Airways, a competitor to Ryanair, has reviewed its short-haul operations and is planning to spend a portion of its marketing budget promoting shorter haul flights. However, they believe that services such as in-flight refreshments and business class seats are expected by their customers, and intend not to cut back on these services but focus on this differentiation and thereby create market imperfections.In the journal article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Easyjet and Ryanair flying high on the Southwest modelÃ¢â¬ , Chris Avery, an analyst at JP Morgan, believes that the answer to the threats from low cost airlines by BA has been p erfect. They acknowledged that they were no longer the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s favored provider and have taken measures to, not only, protect their primary market, but also to learn from their rivals. With BAÃ¢â¬â¢s key financial figures reported in British pounds and RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s in Euros in their respective annual reports, there is difficulty in comparing them. Nevertheless, I will look at other key statistics. (Ryanair, 2008, p. ) Looking at the figures above, one can see that Ryanair charges passengers considerably lower, including no fuel surcharge. This is one for RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s USP and such low costs form a barrier for new entrants. (Ryanair, 2008, p. 7) With regards to consumer satisfaction, RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s service is greater than that provided by BA. Source: Mintel From above, one can see that Ryanair have the second largest number of active aircraft behind BA. Nevertheless, if the average age of the fleet is taken into account, Ryanair has one of the largest young fleet. However, one canÃ¢â¬â¢t disregard the different sizes of the two firms.Since British Airways is a larger firm compared to Ryanair and offers different services, as well as owning a larger fleet of aircrafts, it may be more greatly exposed to the external environment. To be able to manage these uncontrollable external shocks, Ryanair needs to reduce its vulnerability and exposure to the market. To do this, its total cost curve needs to become gentler (and like a Ã¢â¬ËsaucerÃ¢â¬â¢ as shown on page 2). This can be explained by reducing the airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed costs and that a downturn in demand will cause profits to fall but not as much as previously.Also, with the average fare being Ã¢â ¬22 cheaper than its local rival Easyjet (see page 5), Ryanair could raise their price and still retain their customers. Ryanair operates in an oligopoly: Q Price Q Price Above the kink, the demand is relatively elastic as all other firmÃ¢â¬â¢s prices remain unchanged. However, below the k ink, demand is relatively inelastic because all the competitors will introduce a similar price cut which would eventually lead to a price war. Consequently, the optimal output is that at the kink. Ryanair have decided to offer Ã¢â¬Å"all passengers on all routes their lowest fare guarantee.On those very rare occasions when passengers find a lower promotional fare on a competitor airline for a similar itinerary then we will happily refund them double the difference. Ã¢â¬ (Ryanair, 2008, p. 6) This ensures customers, especially in a downturn were consumers are looking for the cheapest prices. Consequently, if Ryanair want to achieve supernormal profits, they need to erect barriers to entry and make the airline industry non-contestable. Such barriers can be placed by enhancing RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s current supply chain.For example Ã¢â¬Å"by solely operating Boeing 737 jets Ryanair can keep training, maintenance and operating costs in check. In January 2003 a massive order for 100 of the latest 737-800 variants worth $6 billion was announced in response to the airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s escalating success. Ã¢â¬ (Anon. 2004, p. 5-6) This is unlike its competitors who have more than one type of aircraft. Also, they could try and offshore the administrative side of the organisation to reduce their costs, as well as invest less in advertisement and try to offer more services to compete against BAÃ¢â¬â¢s new proposed plan and to differentiate themselves further.Such differentiating ideas include launching a new all-frills airline for flights to USA. Furthermore, since Ryanair has received previous criticism, they could strengthen the barriers by investing in the brand. Their competitors are forced to incur the same costs to build their brands to contest the industry, as well as new entrants. This reduces market contestability and enhances profits. If they fail, this sunk cost canÃ¢â¬â¢t be recouped. London to Genoa (GOA), Hamburg (HAM), Pisa (PSA), Stockholm, and Venice. (P itfield, D. E. 2007, p. 78)The table above shows the market share achieved by Ryanair in 2003, in the first month and year of operation. Ã¢â¬Å"There seems to be a difference between the Italian destinations and the other two. However, the Venice route also looks closer in character to the other northern European destinations in that although the initial market penetration is good, it does not grow as rapidly as GOA or PSA. This is almost certainly because of the competition offered by easyJet from STN to VCE. It seems that where competition is less and a dominant market role is achieved, large market shares can be achieved.The resulting market share is less if there is more competition. Ã¢â¬ (Pitfield, D. E. 2007, p. 79) Consequently, to mediate this threat against opposition, Ryanair could analyse their current routes and maybe switch from more competitive routes to those that are currently non-existent, for example, Norway. Finally, to increase its market share, Ryanair could seek to takeover a competitor. Having successfully taken over Buzz in 2003, Ryanair have mixed experiences with this strategy with two unsuccessful attempts to takeover Aer Lingus in 2006 and 2008.In the latter case, the approach was rejected due to valuation and competition grounds: Ã¢â¬Å"an aviation monopoly would not have been in the best interests of Irish consumers. Ã¢â¬ References Anon. (2004) Industrious times at British Airways and Ryanair: Winning the battle for the skies. Strategic Direction. 20 (4), 4-6. Anon. (2006) Easyjet and Ryanair flying high on the Southwest model. Strategic Direction. 22 (6), 18-21. BBC News. (2009a). Ryanair to abolish check-in desks. [Online]. Available at: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/business/7903656. tm [Accessed 15 April 2009] BBC News. (2009b). Ryanair mulls charge for toilets. [Online]. Available at: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/business/7914542. stm [Accessed 15 April 2009] BBC News. (2009c). Ryanair launches new Norway route. [Onli ne]. Available at: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/scotland/edinburgh_and_east/8024769. stm [Accessed 15 April 2009] Black, F. (2007) O'Leary plans new all-frills airline for flights to US. Independent. ie, [Online] Available at: http://www. independent. ie/national-news/oleary-plans-new-allfrills-airline-for-flights-to-us-43198. tml [Accessed 15 April 2009] Gillmor, D. (1985) Economic Activities in the Republic of Ireland: A Geographical Perspective. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan Ltd. IATA (2007) Scheduled Passengers Carried. [Online] Available at: http://www. iata. org/ps/publications/wats-passenger-carried. htm [Accessed 15 April 2009] Knight, B. (2006) EC1310 Topic 5. Pitfield, D. E. (2007) RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s Impact on Airline Market Share from the London Area Airports: A Time Series Analysis. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy. 41 (1) Jan 07, 75Ã¢â¬â92. Reuters UK. (2009).UPDATE 4-Ryanair concedes defeat in Aer Lingus bid. [Online]. Available at: http://uk. reuters. com/arti cle/rbssIndustryMaterialsUtilitiesNews/idUKLM15889320090122? =undefined;sp=true [Accessed 15 April 2009] Ryanair. (2008) Annual Report 2008. [Online] Available at: http://www. ryanair. com/site/EN/about. php? page=Invest;sec=download;ref=2008 [Accessed 10 April 2009] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. BBC News. (2009a) [ 2 ]. BBC News. (2009b) [ 3 ]. Black, F. (2007) [ 4 ]. BBC News. (2009c) [ 5 ]. Reuters UK. (2009)
Introduction: In this lab a total of six titrations are to be performed. Three of them will be done using a known Ca2+ solution, (1.000 g CaCO3 /L solution) and three of them will be done using an unknown solution obtained from the stock room. The objective of this lab is to determine the hardness of water, using the data collected from each titration performed with the unknown sample. Since the hardness of water arises from the presence of metal ions, we can use disodium salt of EDTA and the indicator Eriochrome Black T to determine the concentration of M 2+ ( Mg 2+ or Ca 2+) metal ion impurities. Chemical principle or theory involved in this lab: To determine waters hardness we will use a technique called a chelometric titration. Ã¢â¬Å"When a neutral molecule or anion (lewis base) donates electron pairs and attaches itself to a metal ion center (a Lewis acid), the resulting cluster of atoms forms a single ion called a complex. When such complexes form the electron donating groups are called ligands. When ligands with more than one binding site form complexes with metal ions, we call this process chelation, where the ligand used is called a chelating agent. Ã¢â¬ (lab manual) In this lab the chelating agent used is Na2EDTA. Our Indictor Eriochrome Black T, is a dye, and will form a pink complex in the presence of a metal cation. As EDTA solution is added to the solution, the metal ions will complex to the EDTA solution leaving the indicator solvated. The chemical equation, with the known calcium ion solution, looks as follows: Where H2InÃ ¯ represents the solvated indicator Erichrome Black T dye. H2InÃ ¯ + Ca 2+ Ã¢â¡Å' CaInÃ ¯ + 2H (blue) (pink) As EDTA is added to the solution, it grabs the Ca ions away from the Erichrome Black T dye molecules to form a more stable complex. When solvated, and alone in the solution, the Erichrome Black T dye will produce a blue color; it can be represented by the equation below: EDTA 4Ã ¯ + CaInÃ ¯ + 2H Ã¢â â H2InÃ ¯ + CaEDTA 2Ã ¯ (pink) (blue) Procedure or Method: First prepare your disodium EDTA solution by weighing out 0.7- 0.8 grams of Na2EDTA and dissolve it in 500 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of deionized water. Place in a sealed container and shake vigorously. Standardize the Na2EDTA solution using calcium ion stock solution: Add 10 mL of calcium solution to a flask, and add 30 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of deionized water. Add 3 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of ammonium chloride buffer under the fume hood and stir. Add 4 drops of the Eriochrome Black T indicator dye, then titrate with the disodim EDTA solution within 15 minÃ¢â¬â¢s. At the endpoint the color changes from pink to violet to blue within 3-5 seconds. Note the volume of Na2EDTA that was used delivered from the burret, and repeat the titration 2 more times. Obtain an unknown water stock solution from the stock room taking note of the unknown number, then titrate with the standardized disodium EDTA solution: Mix 25 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of the prepared water sample with 20 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of deionized water, then under the fume hood, add 3 mLÃ¢â¬â¢s of ammonium chloride buffer and stir. Add 4 drops of the Eriochrome Black T indicator dye, then titrate with the disodim EDTA solution within 15 minuteÃ¢â¬â¢s Repeat the titration 2 more times, and calculate the hardness of the prepared water sample from each of the titrations. Observations and Calculations: Amount of Na2EDTA solution Amount of Na2EDTA solution Ã required to titrate calcium Ion solution required to titrate unknown H2O sample Trial 1 25.0 mL15.7 mL Trail 2 23.8 mL14.9 mL Trial 3 23.6 mL15.5 mL Because EDTA chelates Ca 2+ ions in a one-to-one molar ratio we can calculate the moles present of Na2EDTA using the following formula(s): Trial 1: [Na2EDTA] = 10.00 mL CaCO3 Ãâ" 1.000 g CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol Na2EDTA 25.0 mL Na2EDTA 1 L CaCO3 100.1g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 =.004 moles Na2EDTA Trial 2: [Na2EDTA] = 10.00 mL CaCO3 Ãâ" 1.000 g CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol Na2EDTA 23.8 mL Na2EDTA 1 L CaCO3 100.1g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 =.004197 moles Na2EDTA Trial 3: [Na2EDTA] = 10.00mL CaCO3 Ãâ" 1.000 g CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol CaCO3 Ãâ" 1mol Na2EDTA 23.6 mL Na2EDTA 1 L CaCO3 100.1g CaCO3 1mol CaCO3 =.004233 moles Na2EDTA Mean of all 3 trials = .004 + .004197 + .004233 / 3 = .004143 Absolute deviation: Estimated Precision(ppt): Trial 1: |[.004143] Ã¢â¬â [.004] = [1.43 x 10^-4]| .02229 X 1000 = 23.09 ppt .004143 Trial 2: |[.004143] Ã¢â¬â [.004197] = [-5.4 x 10^-5]| Trial 3: |[.004143] Ã¢â¬â [.004233] = [-9 x 10^-5]| H2O hardness Calculated: Trial 1: 15.7 mL Na2EDTA X .004143mol Na2EDTA X 1mol CaCO3 X 100.1g CaCO3 0.02500 L CaCO3 1L Na2EDTA 1mol Na2EDTA 1mol CaCO3 Trial 1 H2O hardness = 260.44 ppm Trial 2: 14.9 mL Na2EDTA X .004143mol Na2EDTA X 1mol CaCO3 X 100.1g CaCO3 0.02500 L CaCO3 1L Na2EDTA 1mol Na2EDTA 1mol CaCO3 Trial 2 H2O hardness = 247.17 ppm Trial 1: 15.5 mL Na2EDTA X .004143mol Na2EDTA X 1mol CaCO3 X 100.1g CaCO3 0.02500 L CaCO3 1L Na2EDTA 1mol Na2EDTA 1mol CaCO3 Trial 3 H2O hardness = 257.12 ppm Average H2O hardness for unknown # 127 = 254.91 ppm Conclusion: The average water hardness for unknown 127 is 254.91 ppm. City of Gilberts average water hardness in 2011 was in the range of 41- 330 ppm (http://www.3mwater.com/medi/documents/ WaterReport_GilbertAZ.pdf). This is a large range but is a range that my unknown water sample would fall within. According to Fairfax Water, a value over 180 ppm is considered Ã¢â¬Å"very hardÃ¢â¬ , and according to the lab manual water with more than 200 ppm is considered hard. Based on this information I would conclude that my unknown water sample has a high amount of metal ions present. References: Lab Manual City of Gilbert, Ã¢â¬Å"http://www.3mwater.com/medi/documents/WaterReport_GilbertAZ.pdfÃ¢â¬ FairFax Water, Ã¢â¬Å"http://www.fcwa.org/water/hardness.htmÃ¢â¬
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"In the book of record that Mr Parris keeps, I note that you are rarely in church on Sabbath dayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ twenty-six times in seventeen month, sir. I must call that rareÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ this can cause people be rebellious and there is also the fact that not everyone feels the same way about religion and forcing people would cause resentment between the community it self, and that is exactly what we find happening. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take the WalcottÃ¢â¬â¢s. They blamed Martha Corey of being a witch. This was due to the fact that she had sold them a pig and it died. When they asked for their money back saying that she had given them a sick pig, she refused and said Ã¢â¬Å"Walcott, if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t the wit to feed a pig properly, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll not live to own manyÃ¢â¬ After that, the WalcottÃ¢â¬â¢s claimed that they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep a pig alive for more than four weeks and so accused her of being a witch. The whole witchcraft business turned into something to settle old grudges. We even find Ann Putnam accusing Rebecca Nurse, who as we know was a very religious and god fearing woman. She accuses her because of her jealousy of Rebecca having so many children and grandchildren and not one of them died. She accused Rebecca of murdering her babies with her powers as a witch. So we find that the community was very much involved in accusing and taking advantage of these witch trials as a way of solving old grudges and to put it to use for their personal vendettas. There was also the mistake of John Proctor. He should have gone to the court and told them at the beginning what Abigail had told him, before the whole thing got so out of hand. Ã¢â¬Å"The towns mumbling witchcraft. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, posh! We were dancinÃ¢â¬â¢ in the woods last night, and my uncle leaped in on us. She took a fright is allÃ¢â¬ This shows that Abigail admits that there is no truth in the witchcraft rumour. By the time he went and told them, they had already thrown a lot of people in jail for witchcraft. For them to listen to Proctor would be admitting that they had made a mistake, and that in it self would mean that other problems would arise for them. ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s affair with Abigail had also somewhat caused these witch trials. Abigail, due to her infatuation with Proctor had gone to the woods where she drank a blood charm to kill his wife and was discovered by Parris. That was the start of the rumours of witchcraft. There was also the mistake of Elizabeth Proctor. If she had not lied, the court would have been overthrown. Ã¢â¬Å"Is your husband a lecher?! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No sirÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She spoke nothing of lechery, and this man has lied! Ã¢â¬ The lie caused the fact that Abigail had confessed to Proctor that she had been dancing and that there was no witchcraft done on them, to be dismissed as a lie told by Proctor. So once again the witch trials were back on. Rebecca Nurse seemed to be the only person who understood what was going on. Ã¢â¬Å"I have seen them all through their silly seasonÃ¢â¬ She knew that what Betty and Ruth were doing was just their childhood mischiefs. In fact Abigail, when talking to Proctor, had said Ã¢â¬Å"She took fright, is allÃ¢â¬ about BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. So we can see that not all of the community was bad. And of course we cannot forget the legal system Ã¢â¬Å"the courtÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ input into the trials, as they had held them. First of all the rule that if you confessed to witchcraft you would not be hanged but if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t then you will hang, is totally preposterous. This means that even if people were innocent, which we know they were, they would have to confess to save their lives. If people confess then it would be known that witchcraft is about in Salem and so there would be no talk of overthrowing the court. In fact even after finding out that the accusations of witchcraft had been a hoax they were not ready to admit mistake and went on further and executed some more people. Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot think they would run off except they fear to keep in Salem anymore. Mark it, sir, Abigail had close knowledge of this townÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ This shows that Abigail had been lying. So the question is how much was it AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s fault that these witch trials took place. After gathering sufficient evidence from the play, one cannot be certain and say that Abigail was to blame entirely because we know it is not entirely true. We know there were other factors and people who supported and played a big part in the trials. We also know that a lot of it was to settle old grudges and to deal with individuals personal vendettas. Still we cannot deny the fact that Abigail was the main reason for these witch trials. The drinking of the blood charm and dancing and heaven knows what else and then being discovered started the talk of witchcraft and after that, one after the other, the drastic events of the Salem witch trials unfolded. In my opinion I feel that Abigail was to blame somewhat although I would not blame her entirely. Living in a strict community and having seen terrible things happen in front of her as a child could definitely not have helped her behaviour and mentality. I myself would also hold responsible the court and people like the PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s and the WalcottÃ¢â¬â¢s and also Parris, to some extent, for the trials. Not really for being a cause for starting them as such, although I do think they played some part, but mainly for contributing to them after they had started. As for Abigail, her behaviour cannot be excused, yet we can try and understand why she did what she did. We know that a lot of it had to do with her obsession with Proctor but if we were to look just beneath the surface we would find that, at least in my opinion, that Abigail was somewhat mentally psychotic in some ways and really needed a good and loving home to support her after the murder of her parents to have prevented her from her terrible deeds. By Kausar Hussain 10S Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
The Lena Baker and Anjette Lyles are two-court cases that are very questionable in court decision. Lena Baker shot and kill Ernest B. Knight who had remove her from her home and locked in a the gristmill. Baker was sentenced to Death. Anjette Lyles was a woman who murder four people Ben F. Lyles Jr who was her first husband, Joe Neal Gabbert who was her second husband, Julia Lyles who was her former mother in law and Marcia her daughter. She was sentenced to the State Hospital for the Insane in Milledgeville. Georgia's In Lena Case, the Judge put to gun on the stand to intimidate the court to give him the verdict.Her trail lasted less than day. Even with the right to fast and speedy trail in my opinion that was to fast for the defense to cast enough doubt in any juror mind. The Judge gun influenced the jury to give him the verdict he wants. Those two alone is enough for a mistrial. The Governor granted Lena a sixty-day reprieve so that the Board of Pardons and Parole could review the case. In January 1945, the board denied clemency. Baker's execution date was rescheduled for March 5, 1945. She was taken to Reidsville State Prison on February 23, 1945.Sixty years later the state of Georgia accounted that it had made a mistake and that Lena Baker should have been sentenced to a lesser serious crime. I think that the death should be removed from the books because innocent people are sentenced to death each year. The Death pleanty here was unreasonable everyone knew what was happening was wrong but still happened. In the Anjette case, her poison four people . Anjette plan these murder out and commit them. She had her trail and was sentenced to death. She would have been the first white woman sentenced to death and people were not happy about that.The governor step in and appointed a sanity commission consisting of a psychiatrist, psychologist, and medical doctor to examine Lyles. The conclusion the team presented to the Board of Pardons and Paroles was that the pri soner was insane. The Board commuted her death sentence, and Lyles was sent to the State Hospital for the Insane in Milledgevillethe Insanity plea in this case was unreasonable everyone knew what was happening was wrong but still happened. took form Document by Mr. Sutton Word for Word. 2005 took form Document by Mr. Sutton Word for Word.