Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Analyzing Understanding the War on Terror 3rd Edition - Essay archetypeIt was probably then when the notion of the States on war with baneism took birth. Later on, George W. Bush, US death chair and other officials of the States having high ranks used this term of War on Terror extensively to march that America is against terrorism and the organisations that use weapons and keep armaments for the purpose of spreading terror. This campaign was started because these terrorist organisations were not only create bane to USA and they are threatening to other countries as well. Such activist organisations are dangerous for humanity on the whole. The phrase of the war on terror is particularly used against militant Islamic organisations like al-Qaeda. On the other hand, the present President of USA Barack Obama does not use the linguistic communication of war on terror officially as he makes use of the term Overseas possibility Operation for the same idea as that of war on terror . But the term of the war on terror is still in use and is used by political persons in media and around part of government also makes use of it e.g. Global War on Terrorism Service Medal. Some mess believe that the term of the war on terror was introduced by the US President George W. Bush by and by the 9/11 terrorists blasts on the twin towers of USA. The term the war of terror is developed to show Americas clash with the people who have Islamic extremist thoughts. This term of the war on terror was selected by George W. Bush when the higher officials of USA wanted to introduce the term global struggle against lashing extremism (Coaty and Babst, pp. 222228). USA had already a strained relationship with Iraq and also with Afghanistan which was led by Taliban. This stress in relationship occurred as a result of Gulf War of 1991 but the situation worsened and the terrorists attacks on the Twin Towers on 9 September 2011 make the US President Bush to take some steps against terr orism. The attack on the Twin Towers is observed as the attack on humanity and not on USA alone. Terrorism is a problem which has threatened not only America but also its allies and other independent countries. Furthermore, after the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers the anthrax-laced letter which were sent to USA took the lives of five American people and it is thought to be the worst biological attack in the history of USA created by Islamist militant extremists, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). As these events occurred together so United States of America had to take an action. The union of happenings forced USA to make amendments in its foreign policy as well as domestic policy. As a consequence, American officials drafted USA Patriot Act and also developed Department of Homeland Security. These steps helped in the renovation of the warranter measures such as operation involving investigation and intelligence. on with the alterations made in the domestic and foreign policy the President Bush ordered the Taliban government of Afghanistan to give Osama Bin Laden to the US government. It was suspected that Osama put in Laden was the hand behind these terrorists attacks and it is he who developed the whole plan of terrorism and executed it. Along with Osama bin Laden, US government wanted to capture other members of al-Qaeda which could be a threat for any further act of terrorism. But the government of Taliban did not accept the orders of President Bush which made US President to start operations of war against
Monday, April 29, 2019
Efficient Market Theory - Essay Example whatsoever information, whether published or insider, leave behind reflect in the prices instantly. This hypothesis presupposes that there is no question of low or overestimate in the commercialize and it is im practical to outperform the market by making brachydactylous profits in the stock exchanges. It is also pertinent to note that higher returns are associated with higher risks, and the factors touch on performance of a stock could vary from political risks, acquisitions and mergers, crisis of various sorts to fluctuations in other markets, and it may be surd for the market forces to adjust to the impact of these factors instantly. Objectives This paper seeks to study and analyze the secondary sources with reference to the followers questions relevant to efficient markets theory 1. Is the Efficient Market theory true? 2. Is there any hire for technical or fundamental analysis in efficient markets? Efficient Market Theory If beat the market is impossible, how come Warren Buffet is consistent in outperforming the market? There are so many mutual fund and portfolio managers giving consistent performance in the stock markets, which is not possible according to this theory. There is continuously scope for outperforming the markets thorough experience, expertise, intuition and discipline. The efficient market is an ideal concomitant which is hardly achieved in the real life. For example, Muhammad, N. M. N. and Rahman, N. M. N. A. (2010, p. 35) writes EMH states that security prices fully reflect all available information and will immediately adjust to the arrival of new information (Adam, 2004). However, since market was closed on both Saturday and Sunday, it was argued that investors cannot do anything with the market even though they got some information during the weekend. The equilibrium in the market is always disturbed by so many factors including psychological factors such as over confidence of the inves tors or over reaction to the market forces. Sharma, A. (2009, p. 37) states Various studies have been conducted worldwide on stock market reaction to public announcements. Markets reaction to such publicly available information is very swift. Inefficiency in the market exists when investors envisage such information before it is formally announced and earn abnormal returns. esurience and fear are the motivating forces of the markets many a times, and rational approach to the investment or traffic takes the backseat. Sudden crashes in the markets are nothing to do with fair value, and the market sentiments driven by so many factors rudely shakeup the very fundamental concept of this theory. Consequently, the question of under or overvaluation to the stock arises in the markets. Park, A. (2010, p. 365) states that one of the implications of the weak-form EMH is that prices are submartingale, or, more loosely, they are a random walk. Consequently, a alleged(prenominal) technical ana lysis, which is the extraction of information about the future movement of prices from past prices, should have no merit. In real life situations, perfect efficiency in the market place is unrealistic, and it also depends upon accuracy of the information, follow of the information, the efficiency of the information transmission and the risk-return reward in taking decisions based on the information. Livanas, J. (2006, p. 28) argues how can the market be efficient when investors seem to make decisions that perhaps are rational but only inwardly bounds? When the investors make decisions in an irrational manner, which is in line with the human behavior, it will be difficult to rely on a
Sunday, April 28, 2019
The Grammar Of Words - Essay ExampleThere ar various ways the numbers can be transformed from singular to plural. In the case of the atomic number 53s provided in the question, the answers are one syllabus, many syllabuses or syllabi one ox, many oxen one search, many fish or fishes one antenna, many antennae or antennas one hippopotamus, many hippopotamuses or hippopotami one octopus, many octopuses one nucleus, many nuclei and one focus, many focuses or foci.We notice in the nouns above that in the cases of syllabus and octopus the word devastation in -es. In the other cases it ends with -en for ox, and -i for nucleus. In the cases of syllabus, fish, antenna, and hippopotamus, these words in plural end with -s or -i and the speaker is free to pick his choice.Nonetheless, English is loose because of the limited consonants and vowels. Any learner finds it easy to pick the language and begin to use it as soon as he begins to learn it. However, the paradox is when the learner ge ts to grammar, the rules could be complex and the learner can get confused at the initial stages.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Two Party System - Essay ExampleThe twain-way clay in American politics has created both opportunities and constraints. The two party system creates a build of opportunities. First, the two party system in America is among the most stable political systems in the world. low the two-party system, the United States has been peaceful and politically stable as opposed to countries with the multi-party system. Secondly, the system is simple and weak for the voters to select their leaders. Voters in the United States only require following the manifestos and strategies of the two parties and choose their leaders infra the two parties. The two- party system creates simplicity in understanding, following and voting leaders for the two parties (Janda et al. 23).However, the two party system being exercised in the U.S. creates more constraints than opportunities. For instance, the two party system limits the choice and options of the American voters in the process of selecting their lead ers. Unlike in the multiparty system, voters in the two party system are cut back to choose or vote their leaders from only two parties. For this reason, other potential leaders who may be more efficient and appropriate than the selected ones lack opportunity to be selected in the general elections. Secondly, the system is slowly killing democracy in the U.S. People in America are guided by the opinions and decisions made by leaders from either Republic or Democratic parties. The limitation of opinions, options, and decisions leads to marginalization of some people. The system has led to poor governance and lack of accountability among the elected leaders. Although leaders are make to be unaccountable of public finances, their political parties support them, thus increasing the level of corruption and unaccountability in the U.S (Janda et al. 23).The founding of the American politics had various perceptions of political parties. For
Friday, April 26, 2019
Sleeps Relationship to Learning and retentivity - Essay ExampleOn the other hand, during REM, EEG waveforms change associated with increased frequencies. This is where memorable dreams occur. Sleep in mammals is described mainly by inactivity of behavior in conjunction with different electrophysiological changes in the enquiry of the thinker.iiFactors like stress, shifting schedules, and longer work contribute to lack of sleeping time. This results to inefficient performance to workers so companies have allotted rooms for quick naps and other businesses have installed apparatus that will repair the results unforesightful-term sleeps. Sara Mednick et al. (2002) describe naps to be short periods of sleep which lasts for one hour maximum and likely to enhance ones attentiveness, susceptibility and disposition. These brief periods of rest ar suitable for people, who are experiencing sleep deprivations, nightshift schedules, and prolonged periods of driving. Daytime naps also impro ve psychomotor speed and attainment of short-term memory. However, their relation on previously learned information is non yet established although they are common among people with daily information overload. Mednick et al. (2002) suggest the psychological sense of smell of burnout, which is an amplified irritation and frustration brought by decreasing effectiveness after a lengthened cognitive effort, is not merely a reflection of mental exhaustion but a need for a dog-tired mind to experience restoration during sleep.iiiSleep is the sole(prenominal) 2. Sleep to military personnel beings Especially Sleep is the only way by which one can rejuvenate oneself a mere rest will not be any good as far as the revitalizing factor of sleep is concerned. In relation with that, studies also show the need for the brain to experience the restorative benefits of sleep, and also restore positive attitude emotionally. Matthew Walker (2009) identifies several lineaments of sleep in cognitive a nd emotional brain processes.iv 3. Sleep and Human MemoryFirstly, Walker observes the role of sleep in memory processing which focused on the asserting(prenominal) memory. Secondly, he relates the ordered structure of sleep and memory stage evolution with the sleep-dependent plasticity models. Thirdly, he discusses the role of sleep in associate memory processing. Fourth, he touches on the emerging advantage of sleep in emotional brain reactivity. Lastly, he proposes a framework of sleep-dependent affective brain processing which will get along explain the implications of mood disorders. Neurological studies have shown stimulating role of sleep in the control of brain function and emotional experience. Walker identifies that modulation of affective net incomes overnight and emotional experiences happened in the past are capable of affecting the restoration and maintenance of the appropriate connectivity for the next-day reactivity. Lisa Marshall and Jan Born mention the role of s hort wave sleep or the NREM, in benefiting the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory, and also the valuable for the procedural aspects of memory. 4. Sleep and creativityCreativity has been delimit by Mednik as the forming of associative elements into new combinations which either meet specified requirements or are in some way useful. Many studies also have explained the roll of sleep in the creative business solving process. Denise Cai et al. find REM to be beneficial in terms of improving the associative network construction. It has also enhanced the incorporation of unassociated information,
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Nursing research - screen ExampleOther areas that will modify my capacity as a professional include move assistance, availability of information on databases and targeted products and resources, including newsletters and online CE. Through exposure to these informative resources, professionals and knowledge areas, I will improve my knowledge base and the capacity to offer quality care.As a professional in the aesculapian profession, I am required to offer my entire work time and in some cases my personal time towards the delivery of healthcare services, which are the source of my livelihood. Therefore, as a permanent employee in this sector, close all my time is spent on work particularly patient care. However, there are other professional activities that I am required to take, either for certification or for personal development. These include attend professional seminars, educational conventions, professional examinations, assisting other professionals and contributing to the knowledge-base availcapable at professional associations. Balancing betwixt the career and these other professional activities is difficult, as they improve my career and professional development, but at the like time I am required to execute my duties as a professional, to the fullest. Through evaluating the activities that must be taken and those that require my continued physical and mental presence has helped me give priority to my services at the hospital. After completing my service dues, I am able to engage in the other activities, nearly times during my free time, and when I have work breaks. Through prioritizing, I have been able to ratio between my career and the other professional activities.From a personal point of view, being a extremity of an organization is beneficial to a nurse. These benefits include that the nurse is exposed to educational programs, organizational conventions and seminars, and they are able to network for help and information with other members
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
supposition integration on 3 terrorist act cases - Term Paper ExampleThe theories on terrorism are also as well as varied, such as to defy an integrative understanding of the phenomenon. This paper will therefore explain the Jewish-Orthodox and non-orthodox theories on terrorism, applying these to three known cases of terrorism. Analytical discussion will try to show that the hypothesis is legal and relevant. Orthodox terrorism theories Terrorism is a highly debatable issue. Its complexity e military manates from the primeval nature of man to sow lethal violence against his kind. It is estimated that the 18th century French Revolution gave impetus to in advance(p) terrorism that led to the upsurge of contemporary terrorism with its state, interstate and global dimensions. Thus far, orthodox theories on modern terrorism have been used to understand cases of terrorism, but these have been subjected to debates. In an in-depth analysis, Jason Franks opened up a discussion of the Or thodox Terrorism Theory or theories, proposing a more comprehensive non-orthodox understanding of the phenomenon which be applicable in the many years to come. For Franks, the Orthodox Theory is capable of answering the questions what makes up terrorism and how it can be countered. However, he notes that the Orthodox Theory fails to adequately answer why it happens. ... o twinge and intimidate governments to accept political, religious or ideological objectives, and secondly in defence of the terrorist act as when Hezbollah leader Sheikh Fadlallah described terrorism as fighting with special means against assailant nations in religious and lawful warfare against world imperial powers. ( Kramer n.p.). The situation shows that it is difficult to establish a sound foundation for research and policy on terrorism. This may also suggest that resolving the phenomenal rise of terrorism may continue to meet difficulties in the times ahead. To be fair, the Orthodox Theory on Terrorism has m erits. It comprises the western model of understanding terrorism along the human ideals of liberty, rule of law, and popular life in society. It is also a practical concept in dealing with acts of terrorism as threats to state authority. The Orthodox Theory has laid down three useful themes on terror acts, that is to say (a) Functional, as embodied by the Theory of Provocation, or the belief that terrorism aims to provoke a response from a repressive state by means of strategies that will radicalize citizens against government (Laqueur 72) (b) Symbolic or the accounting that terror acts have image- value under the idea of terrorism in theatre (Jenkins 132), and (c) Tactical as terrorists use strategies along short-term objectives such as hijacking, as well as long-term objectives to forward-moving the broader cause of revolution. In spite of merits derived from the Orthodox understanding of terrorism, Franks perceives that this approach needs to be improved owe to the new terror istic environment which has pushed terrorism beyond the state into interstate and global boundaries. The alternative terrorism guess Improving on the orthodox theory, Franks
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Functions of Management - Essay causeWhen talking about Food and Beverage Businesses, planning is important because it helps in forecasting where the company wants to be in a few years and on the basis of that what goals need to be set and what natural action needs to be collide withn. Planning will not be from one perspective, but it will take into account the whole organization, make sure that your inventory level is sufficient, that the employees know what the goals and missions are and are working towards them.Organizing structures the work of the organization, it helps in achieving the objectives mentioned during the planning stage of the organization. In this function, the focus is on division of labor, coordination, flow of development and control of tasks. Authority and responsibility is distributed among the employees.The first matter that helps is the organizational structure, in the food and drink business sector it will enable the employees to know who is reportin g to whom, where the information is coming from and who it is going to. The next important intimacy is the division of labor, who is performing what task and who is responsible for what. For example soulfulness is responsible for cooking the food, while somebody else is responsible for instituteting the ingredients. The waiter will deliver the food, while the chef will only cook it and he might come up with new recipes as well. in that respect is one very important thing to note here, a leader ... Being a good leader is the ability to influence other peoples decision and actions. A leader needs to motivate the employees and direct them towards achieving the goals and their duties and responsibilities. Most of the leadership characteristics exist in ones personality. Leaders communicate and interact with their workforce on a daily basis. In the food and beverage industry, especially for a eating place it is very important that the managers are good leader because at dinner and lunch sentence, the chef has to lead his assistants so that they cook the food according to his standards. At rush hours, there is time constraint and a lot of pressure of the chef and the assistants. Having good leadership makes the job easier as they know they keep up someone on their side helping them out. ControllingThis is the last of the four functions through this the manager give the gate enable that the plans are being implemented properly and that the employees are working towards achieving the goals of the organization. Controlling completes the circle of management. There are many airs of controlling employees there are functioning standards which are measured against the employees performance. paygrade forms are filled out periodically to gain insight on the performance of all employees. If the performance criteria are being met very easily then managers set higher standards. In a restaurant you might have seen how the chef keeps an eye on what is being made and s ent out of the kitchen. This is a way of keeping a check and balance. Another way can be form the number of revisits you get from a customer. If the service is nice and the food is good, the people will come again. Performance can be measured this way as well, while they
Monday, April 22, 2019
Considering all the profound developments of the last few years, what is there left to improve in the field of Employment Law in th - Essay ExampleThe Pope does not come down from his thrown very often. No one would ever deny that the Papacy has not wielded some influence in secular government activity through the course of Western History. At the same time, that it is true that Popes oppose fairly infrequently. Popes dont hang or so chambers after Question Period in the Commons trying to pitch stories to the media. It is in this sense, that it is universe emphasized that Popes do not come down from their pillars very often to directly make semipolitical statements. As was articulated in Pope Benedict attacks government over Equity Bill BBC, 1130 GMT, Tuesday, 2 February 2010 Human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell said the Popes comments were a coded attack on the legal rights granted to women and man people BBC, Feb. 2, 2010. The Equity Bill envelopes a number of arguably dive rse legislations that preceded it. While the Pope did own The Equity Bill, he did not oppose Employment equivalence (Age) Regulations 2006, Employment comparability ( invokeual Orientation) Regulations 2003, and the Employment bear onity (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003. By no means was this the only context or situation where employee rights were overlapping with adult male rights. Thus, what influenced the constituent parts of the Equity Bill might in any case include some legislation progressions date at least back to 1970 which was the date of the Equal Pay Act. Between the tripartite components of 2006, 2003, and 2003, was also the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975, and the Race Relations Act of 1976, and finally, Disability Discrimination Act which was introduced in 1995 As it was described in the BBC News Magazine in 2007 It is not a piece of legislation welcomed by all and it was bitterly opposed by parts of the Catholic Church Geoghegan, BBC News Magazine BBC, Apri l thirtieth 2007. As is consistent with principals and practices of equity under the British legal system, basic rights have been extended by acknowledging that same sex-partnerships have every right to be recognized. It is a form of legal reform that is popular through Europe and in North America. While the Equality Bill is for the purposes of anti- discrepancy legislation, The Government considers that it is important to harbor current models of disability, which draws on different models for different purposes The Equality Bill Oral and written evidence, p. 210. Another authoritative body of legislation that has impacted employment law in recent years, was the introduction of the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations in 2006. This was a legal challenge to the Default privacy Age Davies, Ed., 204. While the judge did not find that any of the regulations had been breached with regard to the Default Retirement Age in accordance with the European Unions Equal Treatment at Work Di rective. It is important to employment law because of the obvious connection with work-related retirement, but also because of the human rights issue involved with the legislation. Age difference has been one of the strong arguments made against the Default Retirement Age. It has been argued in court, that forcing someone to retire at any one particular age, is a form of discrimination this term encourages the perception that age discrimination is less important than other forms and can obscure discrimination arising from multiple intersecting identifies of people of all ages Meenan 290. Just as an employer cannot legally tell someone that they atomic number 18 too old for a
Wine Festival Event - try ExampleMedia coverage would be very important to making this event work, as appropriate publicize must be done to ensure that the wine loving public is aware of this event. Wine lovers volition be the main attendees of this event, as it will give them an opportunity to sample many different wines from or so the region. In addition, wines that are new to the marketplace will be encouraged to participate in inn to raise public interest on their specific product. This is an excellent opportunity for restaurant and bar owners to boost themselves to the demographic that they need to reach. For sponsorship, we can look to bars and restaurants that sell wines and brandys because this could be utilize as an advertising expenditure for them. The Australian government is another possible sponsor, as this event will be used to help local businesses grow.The goal of this event is to familiarize the public with the various types of wines that are available in the region, with a special emphasis being placed on local wines. This is done in ordering to promote local businesses and products, which will hopefully benefit the local economy. Once the event grows in popularity, it could as well as become a popular tourist destination for wine lovers who wish to experience a relative majority of wines in a short people of time. Other goals would be to increase Australian wines sales by 20% and to al minuscule for new Australian wines to have an opportunity to reach the public.This event, which would take place at the Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre, would have a very unique format, due to the measuring of wines that would be present. The main concept is to create a venue for winemakers, restaurants, and bars to get their products into the public mall in a relaxed and hospitable environment. Winemakers, bars, and restaurants would bring their products to the event and allow for those attending to sample them for a low price. Each of these participants would bring some featured
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Compare and product line Great Britain and Frances most youthful elections - Research Paper ExampleThis writing will focus upon the recent elections that took place in France as well as Great Britain. This writing will focus upon the differences in the midst of the election procedures, power structures, voting trends and voting systems see by the Great Britain and France. Body French Elections 2012 The chairial elections of 2012 that were held in France during the month of 2012 had a total of 10 individuals browsening for the president. These ten individuals included Francois Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy. Sarkozy was the previous president of France and was running for the seat for the s time and according to the constitution of France he was running for the second and the nett time. After the first set of elections, both Sarkozy and Hollande stood as the leaders with 28% votes earned by Hollande and 27% votes earned by Sarkozy. This led to the second round in which both Holl ande and Sarkozy took part, the end result of the second round was that both failed to gain majority and the difference between the percent succession of votes for both the candidates was only 3%. Hollande took the lead by winning 51.64 votes and Sarkozy stood second by winning 48.36% votes (Thompson 131). This ended in the victory of Hollande and later this election followed the elections of Legislative level. The number of volume who voted during the second round was much in high spiritser than the number of people who voted in the elections of the Great Britain. The average votes from all the territories was 82%, in which highest turnaround was experienced in the voters of haul and lowest turnaround was experienced in the votes from the region of Saint-Martin. Sarkozy had a stronger hold in the southern and easterly regions of the nation and he was able to secure 60% of the total votes. Sarkozy even off gained majority in areas that had voted in round one for Marine Le Pen b ut ample amount for support from Hollande was even available because of his proposal of Change. A two staged election process is used in France to take aim the president of the nation, in the first round different parties take part and one candidate from these parties is selected to run for the presidents major power. Those who are elected as candidates have to attain 500 endorsements before existence selected as a candidate. If the results of the first round do not select a majority, then a second round takes place in which two candidates who have the most number of votes run for the office and the individual who secures the majority of the votes in the second round, ends up securing the position. The voters list of France comprises of all French citizens who have reached the age of 18, these people include only those who are regarded as French Nationals and are registered to vote. There are some(prenominal) resigns on which the voters of French presidential elections cast the ir vote. One of the major issues concerning the voters is the issue of unemployment which as been quite high in the recent past. According to the 2007 statistics, the rate of unemployment in France was 9% (Brooke 757). The most lethal issue experienced by voters is the issue of immigration. It is said that the French community has become divided due to the issue of immigration. The numbers game of immigrants that have been deported from France since 2002 have increased and have doubled. Another issue experienced by the voters of presidential elections is the issue of Law and order. The most popular party
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Managing Organizational Change - Term Paper showcaseIt also offers a basis of evaluating the role of leadinghip and other change cistron in the panorama process (Kezar, 2001). An arranging in the Financial/Banking Industry derives benefits due to roles played by people in the organization and their attitudes to the change process, especially in condition where there ar cases of resistance. Nevertheless, this paper will digest on exploring the organizational change in the Financial/Banking Industry, through a description of management possibility and system practices used in the organizations. Organization change is defines as a form of evolution that takes take though a life cycle, without which, the organization would not be able to develop or bend properly. Therefore, the growth calls for an organization to undergo a substantial change in different points of a breeding process. Influence of change is substantial to employees, organization and transformation, which is at th e purpose of both employees and organization like a decision to terminate a section of business. However, the decision is at the best interests of the organization in their semipermanent objective, but consequences of that closure can have an adverse impact on employees involved, since they will be set about with problems of unemployment. In fact, the impact of the changes on the organization and employees, and the possible alternatives of dealing with the changes is a substantial issue that take addressing. Background Organization change requires a change agent who refers to person that perpetrates the act or develops a process through which things in the organization become different (Shankar, 2013). For instance, a change occurs in situation, which members of an organization adapt or fail to adapt to dynamic purlieu, which is considered as a way of sustaining their competitive avail through flexibility (Shankar, 2013). The role of being a change agent can be undertaken by a H R manager in an organization by implementing organizational change, through a induction unique versatility and wide range of skills (Stagl, 2011). The HR manager fostering change in the organization focuses on implementation or execution of activities that deal with employees behavior and attitude (Stagl, 2011). Therefore, as a change agent he or she focuses on identifying cues that impede change and the step that can be taken to turn over these obstacles. There are other benefits that involve ability to forecast and identify need for change and this serves as a significant contributor that enables the organization to succeed and survive in adverse business environment (Kezar, 2001). Research techniques in the evaluation process offer a basis of applying literature critiquing teleological model, which are dominant model within the literature in fact, they are evaluated in terms of their relevance for habituated forms of changes, which are proven by numerous studies (Shani, Pasmor e & Woodman, 2011). Research techniques in the process of evaluating organization change offers recommendations on ways of challenging potential barriers to change, thereby setting principles that can be applied by leaders to establish a new
Friday, April 19, 2019
Friere - Banking v. Problem Solving Models of Education - Essay ExampleThere is a disconnect in the midst of a more expansive view of custody as being capable of finding place the truth for themselves on the one hand, and what the educational system has so ordered as the way cosmospower should learn and that is via a one-way banking concept with the students as mere depositories of knowledge that the educational system has a monopoly on (Freire, n.d.).e) Education as the practice of freedom- as opposed to education as the practice of domination- denies that populace is abstract, isolated, independent, and unattached to the world it also denies that the world exists as a reality apart from men. Authentic grammatical construction considers neither abstract man nor the world without men, but men in their relations with the world (Freire 72)e) In problem-posing education, men develop their power to perceive critically the way they exist in the world with which and in which they fi nd themselves they come to see the world not as a static reality, but as a reality in process, in transformation (Freire 73)f) Banking education resists dialogue problem-posing education regards dialogue as indispensable to the act of cognition which unveils reality...Problem-posing education bases itself on creativity and stimulates true reflection and action upon reality, thereby responding to the vocation of men as being who are authentic only when engaged in query and creative transformation (Freire 73)g) Problem-posing education affirms men as beings in the process of becoming...The unfinished character of men and the transformational character of reality necessitate that education be an ongoing activity (Freire 73-74)It is clear from the preceding textbook that Freire discounts the banking model, after analysis as bankrupt and fostering a model of education that dehumanizes. Truer to the nature of man as capable of seeking the truth is the problem-posing model. There are ele ments in the banking model that,
Thursday, April 18, 2019
The Adams-Onis Treaty - Research base ExampleA key point to note is that the accords signing was conducted in Washington in 1819. Additionally, the verification by Spain followed in 1820 and consequently enforced in 1821. The pact renounced the prior claims by the United States regarding Texas. Additionally, the treaty settled the boundary3. The Louisiana Purchase covered the source of the Sabine River, the west and south banks, and the direct combine to the north of the Red River4. The Adams-Onion treaty was terminated in 1903 chase the introduction of a new treaty in 1902. Some of the key elements in the AdamsOnis Treaty included the idea of the United States acquiring Florida, as well as the idea of establishing a boundary between the territory of the United States and Spain. Notably, the then initiatory international debate concentrated in the then American- Spain border. In the larger continent of Europe, Spain encountered serious problems that were internally generated, a nd the out west colonies almost faced revolution at that time. Spain realized that its hold on the colonial empire was gradually escaping. Through capital of Mississippis attack, Spain authorities realized that they were weak when compared to the United States. The family relationship between the U.S. and Spain was strained due to suspicions of the United States supporting the struggles for independence amongst the Spanish colonies in American5. Additionally, the phenomenon emerged crucial following the seizing of the Pensacolas Spanish forts by Gen. Andrew Jackson. In 1818, St. Marks approved raid of Seminoles as he escaped the then slaves that seemed a significant Georgias threat. Andrew Jackson approved the execution of twain citizens from Britain over the accusations of incitement upon runways and Indians6. There was a serious contemplation by the government of chairperson Monroe towards the denouncing of the actions of Jackson7. However, Adams defended Andrew Jackson as he cited the significance of restraining the Indians as well as escaping slaves. Additionally, Adams sensed that Andrews Seminole campaign proves his popularity amongst Americans this impute strengthened the diplomatic contribution with Spain. After the 1803s Louisiana Purchase, the then Americas President Jefferson presented an argument that the region of Florida was incorporate in Louisiana. Consequently, between 1810 and 1812, America annexed some western partitions of Florida. President doubting Thomas Jefferson sought more territory when John Quincy Adams served as the States Secretary. Between 1817 and 1818, the then US President James Monroe and Adams resumed plans of acquiring Florida as well as a boundary to the west, to be incorporated in the Louisiana Purchase. Following the negotiations that spent a few months, the treaty was signed 18198. Following the dust of the United States in Appalachians, there was an increased need for the Mississippi River to assist in the prod uction of Americas West. This section is sometimes known as the section between the Mississippi and Appalachians. The Louisiana territory belonged to Spain since 1762, including 828,000 miles. There was friction between the United States and Spain regarding the right of navigating the Mississippi as well as the right for U.S people to shipping goods to vessels at New Orleans. However, the friction was settled through the Pickney Treaty in 1795. Following the introduction of the
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
IN WHAT WAYS AND TO WHAT EFFECT IS GENRE QUESTIONED IN IF ON A WINTER S NIGHT A TRAVELLER, BY ITALO CALVINO - search Example(Broderick, 2000, p.11) The novel in question employs a radical new history structure, where not wholly are events shuffled across time-scales, but also the narrative perspectives. In conventional novel structures, either a head start-person or a third-person narratives are used consistently through-out the work (with varying degrees of omniscience on part of the narrator). just in If On A Winters... address to the second-person is made, bringing a new dimension of lector-interactivity that was unimagined previously. For example, the first line of the novel goes You are about to begin reading Italo Calvinos new novel, If on a winters night a traveller. Relax. Let the world around you fade. (Calvino, 1981, p.3) Here the reference is both directly to the reader as well as the novel itself which could be construed as the mathematical equivalent of fractals. In this respect, the novel is avant-garde, fashioning it one of its kind. In the novel, ten other novels are embedded, all of them echoing aspects of the surrounding diegetic story. Strictly speaking, no(prenominal) of these ten constitutes a true novel en abyme, since what they double is local aspects of the story, not continuous aspects, as called for by the criteria of mise-en-abyme. But there are two nested texts which do meet the criteria fully, though neither is rattling presented but, like Dampfboots, merely described. (McHale, 1987, p. 125) Even within serious literature, certain distinct genres can be identified. These include, mixer-realism (as exposited by Charles Dickens, V.S. Naipaul and Dorris Lessing) Magic-realism (Salman Rushdie being its chief exponent in modern times) Satire (Evelyn Waugh and the early novels of Aldous Huxley) Meta-physical enquiries (Iris Murdoch and Huxleys later novels) Feminist novels (Dorris Lessing and Margaret Atwood being leading ligh ts of this genre) and Marxist Realism (George Orwells early works and numerous Russian authors). (Mullan, 2006, p.77) Given Calvinos experiences in childhood, as well as his fathers involvement with Communist causes, it would be a natural inclination for him to adopt the Social Realism or Marxist Realism genres. Indeed, Calvino has successfully explored and mastered these genres in other works. But what makes If On A Winters... unique and places it outside these well-trodden genres are the following aspects. First, the novel carries a labyrinthine and looping narrative structure, whereby the reader is continuously taken from one embedded novel lead to another, without ever resolving all of the started leads. (Tandello, 2007, p.537) Second, the employment of second person reference, adds a whole new dynamic to the reading experience, making it more(prenominal) personal, interactive and involving. The work lucidly shows how a text can signify subjective experiences of the reader by immersing him/her in a process of identification (Fludernik, 1994, p.525). For example, the text addresses the reader directly as one of the characters in the plot. As a result, it foregrounds, as conventional narrations do not, the extent to which your subjectivity as a reader depends upon identification with the signifier you. An effaced narrating agency makes itself apparent only indirectly in the form of imperatives and questions. (Cohan & Shires, 1988, p.150) Third, the novel is a detailed introspection on the process of writing itself, taking the reader through the complexities and challenges that the author
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Equal Opportunity auditionIn this short level, Equal Opportunity, written by Walter Mosely, Minority Socrates Furtlow, faces the dilemma of getting a job. Socrates is an ex-con, having served 27 years in prison. While drunken, he killed two of his good friends, and now lives life as a bumb who goes around collecting bottles and cans for a living. This story tells his struggle to find honorable work as a black hu compositionness in society because of his background. Because there were no jobs in Socrates neighborhood that would hire him, wise to(p) of his background, finding a job was a complicated task for this African-American, 58 year-old man who hadnt worked in 37 years. As Socrates travels approximately 14 miles, 3 bus transfers from his apartment in Watts, South Central, Los Angeles, he arrives at humanity Supermarket to try and get a job. As he enters the store, he wondered what the workers would think of him functional there surrounded by money because of his prison background. Socrates, though was a murderer, not a brigand During his job search at Bounty Supermarket, he attempted to retrieve an application. Being a man of his stance, he had already practiced how he would attempt to ask for an application.Anton Crier, assistant store manager of Bounty Supermarket, was a young white male who Socrates interacted with during his first visit. Anton was reluctant to give Socrates the m of day, mainly because of his appearance. Antons first question to Socrates was Uh. How old are you sir? As an ex-convict, with the stereotype of knowing the law, Socrates knew that this question was a impact of is rights for Equal Opportunity, and he surely informed Anton.Socrates stated to him the law of discrimination, equal opportunity, and his right to basically be given a chance and to at least to turn an application. Determination allowed Socrates to demand his right to admit out the application and wait for a reply, base on the information submitted on t he application and only not his race After he turned in the application with a borrowed pencil Anton loaned him, he informed Anton and the store manager Halley Grimes of his dilemma of not having a phone, but an address where they could write to him he results of his application.He had to explain to them his address was valid because they were already going trying not accept it based on the fact he did not have a phone . He also questioned them about(predicate) an information section on the application about his ability to travel to work. The question asked if he had a car? Although he didnt, he didnt mind using the public transportation (RTD -Rapid Transportaion District) bus route. oer a five day period, Socrates proved to them both his willingness to work and get there on time even if he was using the bus.He arrived at the supermarket for those five days straight on time, and out front 930am. On the fourth day, Halley informed him his application had not been accepted and that she had thrown the fax absent stating his denial. Unable to produce proof, Socrates called the main office himself, finding out his application was never submitted. In the midst of all this, Halley had also reported that Socrates was a threat to her and was afraid that he would do her harm because of him overture in all the time demanding his application results, knowing that she hadnt submitted them.So that fifth day when Socrates came to the supermarket for an answer, he was approached by two gentlemen in lieu of his business there. He was called into the managers office and whence was asked explained to the men, Mr. Parker and Mr. Weems his situation. Surely as they thought about his rights, end up offering Socrates a job at one of their other locations. As Socrates faces dilemma in his position as a black man during the Harlem Renaissance period, he ultimately succeeds in doing what he set out to do.. find a job.As honorable as Socrates claimed he would be while trying to g et this job, he end up lying in the end about another question on the application he had missed. That question is the one who would identify him as a felon for his past mishaps. As appreciation for Moselys short story, one must believe that Socrates and many other African-Americans struggled to be successful, and to survive during this time period. This story tells the struggle of a man who just wanted to work to survive, and that knowing his rights and acting on them with patience and non-violence helped him get what he wanted eventually
miller innovate them into the book EssayThis shows that the girls want some recognition and gain authority by accusing blameless people of witchery. The people of Salems biggest fear was the defiance of God and so when Abigail and her assemblage spoke aside against witchcraft everybody heeded their words and gave them the attention that they wanted. By pretending to be doing Gods work the girls become more important than in the first place and use their power to make people believe what they want. This is why they are believed and never themselves impugned. One of the just about noticeable themes of the book is heroism. Throughout the book there are umteen examples of this theme. The ii most unadorned counterbalancets in the book which display heroism, if not somewhat controversially, are the deaths of Giles Cory and flush toilet Proctor. Corys death was heroic besides it is possible to see the hanging of Proctor from a different perspective. It could be said that it was not a heros action to die but that of a guilty and cowardly man. In the book milling machine, as salutary as Proctor, openly tells us of the constituents mistakes.The reason Proctor chooses to be hung is because he could not bear to devote his reputation tarnished. It could also be said though that he just could not bear the bewilderment of pleading innocence in order to save his life. John Proctor can be comprehend as either a hero or a coward. I think that Proctor was a hero in this book. The way the book talks of him leads me to think of him as a well respect and highly thought of individual. I think that his actions were extremely brave and heroic. It must take a enormous amount of bravery to go to your death even though you can get out of it.patronage there being little symbolism in the play it is a definite symbolic office of the McCarthy anti-communist trials of the 1950s. I have explained previously about these trials and how they led Arthur Miller writing the b ook so from this is it perspicuous that Miller had these trials in mind whilst writing The Crucible. Many people have said though that these two events are completely different in that there were (as far as we accredit) no actual witches in Salem yet there were definitely communists in 1950 America.In the book I noticed that Miller seemed to focus more on the unwillingness of the judges to believe that the accused townspeople were innocent and favored to hang as many people as possible in order to im assure their term and rank within the court. I think this because when Danforths judgement is questioned he informs the court of how many death warrants he has signed, this to me shows that Danforth thinks that the more people you have hung the more respected you become.It is made obvious to us that Danforth is an important character because when he enters everyone in the room goes silent. This could suggest that you are more important if you have signed a lot of death warrants. Thi s use of silence is another dramatic device used by Miller to emphasise an entrance and to make the audience focus on the entering character. I personally dont know how the judges didnt see through the girls because when I watched the video I noticed a lot of things which prove the girls are lying.For example, in Act 3, Abigail claims that a cold wind blows and blames Mary Warren for sending out her spirit. During this performance, John Proctor claims that Abigail is a whore and that he has committed adultery with her. Abigail immediately stops performing and desperately informs Danforth that she is not a whore or a lecher. This could have been a major tumble for Abigail if someone had noticed this. I am particularly surprised that Proctor did not. If he had the trials could have finish there and then and would have prevented the deaths of many innocent people.In addition to themes Miller also introduces motifs. A motif is a recurring design, feature or melody. Accusation, Legal P roceedings and Confessions are major motifs of The Crucible. These step to the fore regularly throughout the book and are the centre of action in the play. This created a series of indictments even before Hale arrived (Sparknotes. com) and a reason for these people to turn on one another (revenge). The totally way that the witches could be found was through the accusations and confessions. The trials only continue as a result of accusations.John Proctor attempts to discontinue the courts proceedings by confessing to adultery in a desperate bid to break away Abigail yet it all goes horribly wrong and Proctor himself is accused of witchcraft Proctors final courageous decisiveness to die rather than confess to a crime he did not commit makes the judges afterthought the whole case and decide to stop the trials before any one else died. Michael Day 10GO Show prevue only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our G CSE Arthur Miller section.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Turning Algae into Gasoline raiseStudies about converting alga into biodiesel started during the 1980s. However, the idea is still not yet fully developed nowadays. With the increasing evaluate of oil in the market some people be finding other alternatives. Many organizations are now starting to develop algae into fuel. Algae are easy to find and those living things bring out faster which means that supply of algae is not going to be a problem. Those can be found on ponds, rivers, mostly in wety places. Those creatures can even grow in synthetic environments. Algae can live in salt water and even in low temperature. exploitation algae as an alternative for gasoline has several advantages. One is that algae do not go to use big amounts of agricultural places in couch to be produced. So, there will be decorous places to plant more crops for foods. Also, cultivating algae will also help to lessen the carbon dioxide in the human being since those creatures needs carbon d ioxide. The emissions of carbon dioxide upon refining the algae into gasoline are lesser than fossil fuels. However, turn algae into gasoline is not that easy. Algae should have enough amount of sunlight in order to produce good graphic symbol gasoline. And since algae grew faster, those creatures sometimes destroy the carbon dioxide they use to make foods and leads to the obstruction of sunlight they need to survive. After all, it is not easy to found algae that have the right quality in order to be converted into gasoline. Also, to produce gasoline, some chemicals, such as methanol or hexane, are used to extract oil from the algae. There are possibilities that the chemicals used will affect the water and land where the plant is located. There are disadvantages and advantages on turning algae into gasoline. As of the moment, the study is immature and needs more experiments and further studies regarding this issue. This study needs to have more development.ReferencesCrooks, E. ( 2007, December 12).Shell bets on algae to make biofuel. The Financial Times. Retrieved may 31, 2008, from http//www.ft.com/cms/s/0/0c2d084a-a857-11dc-9485-0000779fd2ac.html?nclick_check=1Douglass, E. (2008, May 29). Sapphire Energy turns algae into reverse lightning crude for fuel. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http//www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-greencrude29-2008may29,0,1053218.storyKanellos, M. (2007, May 10). The Math on turning algae into fuel. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http//news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9717949-7.htmlMontana State University (2008, January 19). Renewed Interest In Turning Algae Into Fuel Generated. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http//www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/01/080115132840.htmSvoboda, E. (2007, July 1). The greenest green fuel. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from http//www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2007-07/greenest-green-fuel
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Financial Statement Review hearWhat is the net income for the current fiscal year? Is it up or down from the prior year? wherefore would this information be all-important(a) to investors? The total consolidated net income for Fiscal Year 2015 is $17,099 one thousand thousand dollars. This is do is up from the previous Fiscal Year (2014) which had a consolidated net income of $16,695 million dollars. This information quite a little be found on page 38 of the Walmart 2015 annual Report. This information would be of importance to investors because it indicates whether the connection is prospering financially and generating revenue. What is the ending balance in stockholders equity? Why would a labor marrow electric potentially be interested in this information? The ending balance in stockholders equity is $323 million dollars. This information can be found on page 40 of the Annual Report. This information would be of potential interest to a labor union because it provides i nformation that could be used in determine labor rates, work salaries, and employee benefits.What is the total value of assets? Why would this information be important to a potential creditor?The total values of assets is $101,381 million dollars which can be found on page 60 of the Annual Report. This information would be of importance to a potential creditor because it provides an indication of whether the company would be able to quit any accumulated debt. It also provides a picture of how liquid those assets might be.What is the total cash spring from operation?The total cash flow from operations is $17,099 million dollars which can be found on page 41 of the Annual Report.What financial statement user would find this information most important?
Friday, April 12, 2019
The Short and the Tall Es conjectureWe are do aware of the polices attitudes in Act one of The Long, The Short, and the Tall, towards the Nipponese captive from their speech, tone of voice and actions. Johnstone, member of the patrol, shows he has a harsh attitude towards the captive. We can see this, as when the captive enters the cabin, unaware of the waiting patrol, Johnstone is the jump person to grab him. He calls to the others to kill the prisoner as he holds him still. He says Get him brisk Do for him Give it hump Will you just ram it in?These are very briefly phrases and are utter quickly and in a sharp tone of voice. He also maps disperse of colloquial language and never real says kill him. This emphasises Johnstones urgency and professionalism, but also shows that he has a hard image. Because Johnstone can say all this it proves to us that he has a harsh attitude towards the Japanese prisoner and just wants him out of the personal manner. He says We sho uld learn done him when e first turned up. In other parts of the act Johnstones attitude stays the same. He still shows no look on for the prisoner or pity.He still believes that the Japanese prisoner should be killed and doesnt trust him. He says You think that hed have second thoughts astir(predicate)(predicate) putting the mockers on the lot of us? This rhetorical question shows his distrust of the prisoner. He also shows that he is jealous of the prisoner for all the attention he is now getting from the patrol. He says Two minutes ago you wouldnt touch him with a barge pole. None of you He also verbalize Not one of you had the guts to give me a hand. This shows he still thinks the prisoner should have been killed.It shows how he has a ruthless and barbaric attitude towards the prisoner. Also later in the play he has a fight with Bamforth over the prisoner. He is horrible to the prisoner and treats him unfairly. Mitchem has a very distinct attitude towards the prisone r. He has no feelings for the Prisoner but sees that he can be useful. Mitchem says I want this one alive. This makes it decease to us that Mitchem has plans. However he still shows no respect towards the Japanese prisoner. We can tell this from the way he tries to speak to the prisoner.He says Trust me to cop a raving lunatic This refers to the prisoner and emphasises the miss of compassion and respect for the prisoner. Later in the act he shows that he had only one flat coat to keep the prisoner. Mitchem sees it as an everyday thing. He wants to keep the prisoner so he can be used later. He says to Bamforth Hes in your charge. Look after him. This proves he still has plans and his attitude is the same. When he realises that the patrol is in danger and is behind enemy lines he decides to ditch the prisoner. He says Were ditching him.This again proves his lack of compassion for the prisoner but also his professionalism. Bamforth has a very similar attitude towards the Japane se prisoner to Johnstone. When no one can hire themselves to kill the prisoner Bamforth steps up as if it was an everyday final result and says Its only the same as carving up a pig. Hold him still. This is a simile and shows us that Bamforth also has no respect for the prisoner but it also shows us that Bamforth is learned of the gang-life in London. This is because of the colloquial language used. He also uses racist language that reflects on the time the play was set.As in the 1940s racism was not an issue. Also soldiers used racist language towards the enemy so as to feel better when killing them. He calls him an Asiatic glet. Johnstone and Mitchem also use this sort of language when they say Wog grub and Tojo. As Mitchem had put Bamforth in charge of the prisoner he began to talk to him. He said Get your hands up on your head Like this mark He thus speaks to Evans and says Hey Taff See that, he did it like I said This shows that he has no respect for the prisoner and se es him as an prey or pet almost.Bamforths attitudes completely turn around though. As he is looking after the prisoner he begins to get friendly with him and talks to him as a mate or one of the lads. He offers him a cigarette and looks at the prisoners photos with him. This disgusts Johnstone and when he leans in to give the prisoner a light he knocks the cigarette out of his mouth. Bamforth then stands up for his new mate and has a fight his own man, Johnstone for him Bamforth calls the prisoner a pesterer, he says to Johnstone I dont have to ask you before I give a bloke a fagThis shows he sees him as a human. He then beats Johnstone until Mitchem has to interrupt. Evans has a different attitude towards the prisoner as he shows he has compassion for other humans and cant bring himself to kill an unarm man, at least. He steps up to do the job but then changes his mind. He says I I cant do it corp. This shows of his compassion for other human beings. It also shows how stir h e was for killing someone, hence the stuttering. When he says this, his voice is scared and his whole body is tensed upHe often takes the situation light heartedly and humorously. He says to Bamforth, I always knew you were an oriental creep at heart man. This shows how Evans is a friendly and funny person. He has a compassionate attitude towards the prisoner. He actually sees the prisoner as a decent human being. We see Maclieshs attitude towards the prisoner in this section. He treats the situation with indulge at first but then argues with Johnstone about what should have been done to the prisoner. For humour he says He isnt exactly what you would call a handsome blokeThis shows that he hasnt got much respect for the prisoner but he still isnt as bad as some other members of the patrol. When he is arguing with Johnstone he argues by saying You cannot order men to put a bayonet into an unarmed prisoner. He also says Havent you heard of the Geneva Connection. This shows how he is professional in his job and sticks to the rules. It also shows that he may not have the same intentions as Mitchem but still believes the prisoner should be kept. Because the prisoner has been stripped of his arms by the patrol they cannot kill the prisoner.If they were to kill him it would be illegal, murder. Because the patrol have already found out that they are behind enemy lines the prisoner is no longer of any use to them. This links to inter-relationships between the groups of characters in the play. The professional soldiers, with the higher ranks (Mitchem, Macleish and Johnstone) talk about the delicate issues while the others (privates) bet to have a bit of a laugh and mess around while not on duty. The professionals talk about the problem they have with the Japanese soldier. They decide they have to kill himThey discuss this primal issue while the other members of the patrol become mates with the prisoner. Mitchem says Were ditching him What will the prisoners new friends think about this? It is illegal to kill the prisoner as he has become a prisoner of war and has no arms, however he will be a danger and a burden to the patrol The alleviation of the patrol hardly show interest in the prisoner, they are interested but forget about it after they are told to carry on with there business. They arent main characters in this part of the play.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
The a fictional characterheid brass in south Africa EssayThe confines apartheid was one of the most politically charged words in the southward half of the 20th century, and still remains notorious today. Apartheid translated from Afrikaans means separateness or apartness. up to now when the National ships comp some(prenominal) came to power in sulphur Africa in 1948, it took on a much more sinister meaning and today is associated with racial and ethnic discrimination. The root of apartheid stem deep into southwestern African history. It started focusing back during European settlement, and was enforced and maintained discipline up until the end of the 20th Century. It leave behind forever leave a mark on South Africa and indeed the world a benighted period in human history from which we harbour and forget continue to learn.Tensions amid Europeans and native Africans have existed since the first days of settlement and the earliest signs of what would snowball to b ecome apartheid can be traced to these times. In 1488, the Portuguese first sailed past the Cape of Good Hope, eventually kingdoming there and trading for food with lot who called themselves Khoikhoi. It wasnt until the 1600s though, when the Dutch East India Company set up a base in Southern Africa, that the root for what is today known as South Africa were put down. Initially contacts between the Khoikhoi and the new Europeans were peaceful, but all everywhere time the situation grew hostile. Aided by their guns, as well as the diseases they brought with them, the Europeans took more and more land and disrupted the natives lifestyle.By 1795 15000 Europeans and their slaves were scattered throughout the Cape colony. Violence between the natives and the Europeans was inevit fitted. There had been fights between the groups in small battles, but it wasnt until the late 18th Century that there was a large scale termination war between them. The natives were driven back, but in 180 6 Britain took over the Dutch Cape Colony, bringing British settlers to the area. This wasnt a real problem to the Boers, the earliest European settlers, at first, but conflict soon ensued. In 1833 Britain ended slavery throughout its empire, including the Cape. The Boers strongly disagreed with this and they wanted to keep their independence as they believed they had a idol-given right to own African land and slaves.In the late 1830s they migrated north and eastwards far from British eclipse to establish their own independent re humanss, in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. However when diamonds and gold were found afterwards in the 19th Century the British interest in these interior areas was re-activated. The Anglo-Boer War was fought as a result during the years 1899-1902. This war was one of the epic conflicts in the building of an Afrikaner ideology and smell out of identity. The hate of the British afterwards greatly contributed to the firm Afrikaner belief that th ey were chosen by God to rule the land, a belief that would be shown and mechanismed in the apartheid system.Leading up to the First knowledge domain War, South Africa remained a deeply divided country. Only 21.5 percent of the population were sporty, Boers were still resentful over the Anglo-Boer war and the majority black population was divided amongst itself. It was also during this time and after the war that the roots of apartheid began to emerge. Policies, such as the Mine and Works modus operandi of 1911, which forced blacks into the category of cheap labour, and the Natives Land Act of 1913, paved the start of the pathway that would lead to apartheid. Even repression from the police was evident in this time, when in 1920 African mineworkers went on strike and were killed in Port Elizabeth for their efforts. Even before the National Party, that would implement apartheid to its extreme, was elected, apartheid was occurring and existed throughout the country.In summary the policy of apartheid was a product of the late colonial era and came into existence due to events during primaeval settlement, and events later such as the Anglo-Boer, that sparked and ignited a mentality that couldnt be suppressed. In1948 a Nationalist Party government under Dr Daniel Malan was elected, promising a white South Africa and a total system of apartheid between blacks and whites. Apartheid came about in South Africa because of an Afrikaner belief of their god-given right to Africa, which was also a racist one. Apartheid was indeed a means to support and institutionalize their view on how the country should be run.Apartheid was kept in place through various means, mainly the use of legislation and technology. The main way that the government implementapartheid was through legislation. There were countless laws and bills passed, which over time stripped black Africans of their rights, all the while favoring the white elite of South Africa. Race laws affected every socia l aspect of life in apartheid South Africa. The early policies that were made when the National Party first came into power set the base for the later policies to recall effect and branch off. These policies embodied what the apartheid regime was all about, notably two of the earliest policies made, being the commonwealth Registration Act and the Group Areas Act. Both were made in 1950, with the Population Registration Act requiring al South Africans to be racially classified into either white, black or colored, and the Group Areas Act which geographically separated the racial groups.These laws and policies prevented the black population having the like privileges, standards of living and status as the white South Africans. Under the apartheid system everyday life was greatly affected by such laws. For example, under the engagement of Separate Amenities Act in 1953, people of different races were prohibited from using the same public facilities such as restaurants, transport ser vices, restrooms etc. Under the Population Registration Act different members of the same family found themselves in different race groups.Some of these laws essentially made black Africans strangeers the correct term was guest laborers who were only allowed to work in South Africa if they held a temporary work permit. The Bantu fostering Act of 1953 meant the government took over control of all schools and institutions. The emphasis in black schools was heavily on agriculture and this was another way of controlling black Africans as well as upholding the apartheid system. The annual cost on education from the government per pupil was $45 for blacks and $696 for whites. These are just a few examples of laws and policies that were utilize to maintain the apartheid system.Another way the government was able to enforce apartheid was through technology, primarily reckoners. More than any other single technological advancement the computer fostered the concentration of administrativ e power in the give of Africas white elite.1 ready reckoners were used in almost every government agency, particularly in the police system and the military. Thevast majority of these computers came from America and IBM was the largest computer supplier in South Africa during the time when apartheid was active. The first computer transported from the US to South Africa was an electric tabulator to IBM South Africa, in 1952.Through computers and technology the apartheid regime was able to control every aspect of life, particularly for black Africans. It meant that the government and its organizations could cut through people their history, their movement, etc and through this shut out down protests and silence protesters. The computerized population register is regarded as the instrument that made the biggest contribution to the apartheid system. It was responsible for the passbook system that affected more than 25 million black Africans.Through these devices, information on a persons racial classification, name, sex, date of birth, dates of departure and return to the country, fingerprints and places of work and study could all be recorded onto a database. The passbooks and the computer database meant a person could instantly be identified and checked for a history of government opposition. The population registry wasnt the only computerized resource the government used to control its citizens there were other foreign and imported products used as well. X-Ray machines, passbook fingerprinting equipment and communications logging recorders were also acquirable to the police.Various government departments used computers for financial and other non repressive purposes, when in reality they used them to track opponents of apartheid, and once they found them, police brutality and torture were used and the opponents were often held political prisoners without trial. Also, as the largest part of the government, a majority of the computer equipment purchased by the state inevitably must have found its way into the military, which utilised this equipment against its people.Apartheid was conceived and administered as an ideology for the total organization of the South African society for the exclusive win of the white part of the population. This system was implemented and enforced strictly and with brutality for more than forty years. In that time the National Party government achieved a high degree of success in creatingapartheid on a personal, urban and state level. Although this system ultimately failed (in 1991 laws enforcing apartheid were abolished) its mark on South Africa and the world will be present for a very long time and the apartheid era will be a massive legacy to be fully overcome for future generations of South Africans and indeed the world.References1 Automating Apartheid U.S. Computer exports to South Africa and the Arms Embargo. Omega Press, Philadelphia, 1982BibliographyBooksMeisel,J. (1994) South Africa At The C rossroads. Cape Town The Millbrook PressChristopher,A. (1994) The Atlas of Changing South Africa. London RoutledgeTames,R. (2000) The End of Apartheid a New South Africa. Oxford Heinemann LibraryInternet Siteshttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid_in_South_Africahttp//www-cs-students.stanford.edu/cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.htmlhttp//www.africanaencyclopedia.com/apartheid/apartheid.html
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
The wait Years EssayThe passage from the The Waiting Years reveals a bleak look into the earlier old age of Shirakawa, who had worked as a government official. It in any case reveals dedication of moving from moving from one assignment to an early(a)(prenominal) and how difficult that time period must have been for the family. When we hear about the winter months, and how Shirakawas let died, we understand what a hardship the winter months must have been for them, and get a direct bring together between feelings of guilt on Shirakawass part, from the quote and his mothers passing but we besides learn the importance of work and family loyalty. The family crest description offers a deep obedience for the family members when the author describes the shrine, hide in a black lacquer safe, emblazoned with the family crest in gold and it demonstrates a wonderful respect for the family member who had earlier passed on, when the passage speaks about the custom.Tomo acted in a very responsible manner, and it seemed that she had no other choice, but to keep a keen eye on the family property and she was going to do so and hear what she need to know with her own ears. Tomo had taken on the custom of dealing with all course matters concerning the rent on the houses and the land in this Buddhist retreat, tuck away at the back of the house. We also learn that there was more land that belonged to the family, and they had an acre or so each, which brought in a lot of capital for the family and we understand that she had to watch out for those who defaulted on the property.
Monday, April 8, 2019
A modern-day audition EssayBut her marriage to will is all a practical arrangement as she is effectual at her job and Will is a skilled craftsman. As this partnership moves on the pair draw much successful, they manage to pay back Mrs Hepworth the loan she gave then to get started and we see a more romantic side to Maggie as she saves a flower from her wedding day bouquet.I thought Id budge it in my bibleFor keep sakeA factor ab reveal Maggie that would address to a modern audience is that she is very intelligent. She controls the accounts and organises everything at Hobsons. She taught Will to read and write, because Will was born into the lower illuminate she was non properly educate and so he was illiterate hardly Maggie changed that by educating him herselfIll just organize you a short copy, for tonight.Maggie is h angiotensin converting enzymest and fair, when Albert and Freddy atomic number 18 trying to get more money than they agreed out of Mr Hobson, she know s he cannot afford what they are asking and so she gets them mass to a more realistic priceI know perfectly well what father can afford to pay, and it is not a universal gravitational constant pounds nor anything like a thousand pounds.Maggie is as well humble because she is not afraid to ask for help when she demand it. She asks Mrs Hepworth for money as her and will havent got any from their previous jobs because Hobson didnt pay Maggie and Will came from a lower conformation and had little pay, all to get married and start up a good pipelineWeve nonrecreational back Mrs Hepworth what she lent us for our start and made a bit o brass on top o that.At the beginning of the play Will lacked self-confidence and he was poor. He was also a victim of Hobsons exploitationWhat does she want to praise workmen to his face for?But Will is a apt craftsman and a skilled worker which is why Mrs Hepworth complimented him and asked that he chafes her shoes in the futureThese are the best- made pair of boots Ive ever had. Now, youll lick my boots in future.This is a great compliment for a working class man because they were not often praised for their work and didnt often do so well. This is a point somewhat Will that would appeal to a modern audience.Will, like many other working class in the 1880s could not read at the start of the play but due to Maggies help he learns how to read and write. By starting up his own business shows he is a good business man and he pays off Mrs Hepworth the money back she lent the couple to get the business started.Weve compensable off Mrs Hepworth what she lent us for our start.Will is from a working class background he is one of Hobsons boot hands and suffers social prejudice from Maggies sisters Alice and Vicky but now is near equal class to them but they still see him form a lower class and treat him with a lack of adoreWill Mossop do you know who you are talking to?As the play progresses Wills confidence increase as he now dar es to stand up to Hobson, Alice, Vicky and MaggieIll take you into partnership and give you a fractional share.The Audience may find Wills character comical due to his sayings Well by gumAnd make the viewers laugh. When Maggie tells Will she wants to marry him he is a bit worried at tries to back down from the proposal because he did not love her, but they get their partnership up and running and as the story continues he realises that he can learn to love and give Maggie the respect she needs to ca-ca a successful business.From the start to the end of the play Will Mossop changes a lot. He went from working in Hobsons cellar to owning his own successful business and being married to Maggie. His main change was that he went from mendicancy to being a member of the working/middle class. By doing this he has made his way up the social ladder, which was very hard to do in the 19th century. Wills struggle could be compared to a vision going from rags to riches. In my opinion this wo uld be the most important factor about Will that would appeal to a modern audience.Maggies determination to make a success of hers and Willies marriage and the business that they start would make her popular with a modern audience because she did not really love Will when they were married, but she had to do something to get away from Mr Hobson, her authoritarian father and she also managed to get her sisters married.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Illusion and Identity in Atwoods EssayIdentity in Atwoods This is a Photograph of Me In her metrical composition This is a Photograph of Me, causality Margaret Atwood uses imagery and credit line to explore issues of illusion versus reality as well as individuality. The poem is split into two halves. The starting time one-half contains descriptive words about scenery and natural objects, and the second half, surrounded by parentheses, begins with the unnerving surprise that the narrator is dead.The poem opens with a description of a picture that at first seems wooly-minded but slowly comes into focus, like a photograph slowly developing, that even resembles a written poem itself (blurred lines and grey flecks/blended with the paper. ) The second and third stanzas go on to describe objects in the picture, including a small frame base, a lake, and some low hills. The first half has a reminiscent and descriptive t oneness, falsely leading the reader along with serenity.But even here, there is a shroud of mystery, with a description not simply of a branch, but of a thing that is like a branch, and the house is halfway up/ what ought to be a engaging slope, not halfway up a gentle slope. What could this mean? The calm albeit mysterious peacefulness of the first half ends with the fourth stanzas jarring declaration, origin with an opening parenthesis, that the photograph the narrator is describing was taken/ the day after she drowned. The pace of the poem after this divine revelation seems frantic, searching for the narrator in the lake, which was in the first half described as being in the background and now in the center/ of the picture. The narrator tells the reader that what can be seen is distorted and one must look intently, playing with the themes of illusion and identity. Perhaps the ambiguity of the poem and the exploration of illusion and identity are hinting at a feminist perspective that a womans true olfactory modality is overcast by a male-dominated society.Or perhaps the poems focus is eluding to a more universal human search for identity, a with a narrator who is unsure and obscured, but just under the surface, about to break out previously dead but now reborn, to find a new path. Or perhaps the fountain is talking about poetry or literature itself and the authors hidden intentions lurking in the work. As noted earlier, the description of the photograph at the beginning resembles a description of a poem blurred lines and grey flecks/ blended with the paper, like lines of writing and the letters comprising words.The author dies with the birth of her poem, when the piece lives on its own but the author is still there, somewhere, her intentions a key dismantle of the text. The photograph in the poem, in the first half, is described as smeared and blurred and in the second half there is still distortion. So instead of disclosing the narrators story and identity, no resolution is apparent. On the contrary, the photograph creates illusion and obscures identity. The reader is left with uncertainty, just like the blurred and distorted photograph of the poem.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Factors That Affects the Preference of Online Games EssayOnline playing period brush off refer to any type of game that someone can play through the network or over a computer network. Most of the time, online gaming refers to video games played over the Internet, where ten-fold players are in different locations across the world. Players also can compete in massively multiplayer games, where oodles of players play an ongoing game in a virtual world. Often times, participants can communicate with different gamers through text chat sessions during online gaming or, sometimes, players can actually speak to other players, using excess audio hardware. Online Games are now one of the most popular and fast growing part of the cyberspace based industries. These computer games can be played be many people together in a network like the Internet or any office network.With the growing availability of the realism Wide Web, these games have become one of the best ways to relief str ess after a busy day. Today, there are many websites that allow people to play online games. Playing online games has many advantages. Users can play multiplayer online games with their friends. Children find multiplayer games more thrilling and recruittaining as they compete against their friends. Online games offer a icon of entertainment options for people.Online games are an excellent way to escape the real world for a while and enter the virtual domain. In addition to providing entertainment, these games military service us to be mentally strong. These games are liked by people of different ages, especially as they could be played in the comfort of their homes. The games are preferably thrilling as they provide incredible features as well as a user prosperous ambiance. These games also build team efforts and team spirits. A bond of togetherness is developed through these games. To cap it all, these games help one to interact and exchange ideas with others while paying mult i-player games.The industry of computer games is continuously developing its techniques and strategies in order to make more and more appealing games. However, each company that produces video games is specialized in a certain type of games that address to a certain age group. For this reason, the variety of the existing games and of the games to be created is very notable and we should take it into consideration whenever we speak of this domain
Friday, April 5, 2019
Bilingual Acquisition in former(a) ChildhoodAre bilingualist baberen devil monolingual children in unity? Discuss.Research into bilingual skill in earliest childhood has investigated whether infants and toddlers brought up in bilingual settings can be said to curb a single lyric poem body during the initial st progresss of phraseology acquisition or whether these early bilinguals condition ii separate lecture organizations from the start. If the latter can be sh foot raceify to be the campaign, it could be argued that bilingual children atomic soma 18 indeed two monolingual children in adept. However, there has been consider qualified debate over the merits of twain asks for roughly period of time. This essay will consider the arguments and some of the evidence put forward in living of both details of view.Researchers differentiate between two dustups learnd from birth (simultaneous bilingual acquisition) and the acquisition of a second manner of speaking d uring early childhood. Research, intending to address the question of developing bilingual language systems in the infant, focuses on simultaneous bilingual acquisition. Although as Lanza points prohibited it isnt always easy to decide on the cut-off point between origin language acquisition and early second-language acquisition. 1 The language environment, with both p bents speaking both languages or the adoption of a unrivalled language one p arnt approach, is also a consideration. It is often pointed out that bilingual children acquire their languages in much the same way as monolingual children acquire theirs. Pearson and colleagues testing the acquisition of expression found that differences in average vocabulary size (between the bilingual and monolingual children in their larn) across the age range tested were relatively sm every.2Studies of childhood bilingual development abide shown that in almost all cases, children mix elements from the two languages they are acquir ing. This has lead to claims that in the early stages of acquisition bilingual children have a single language system. Code blend whitethorn involve some(prenominal) aspect of the childs language system i.e., phonetic, lexical, phrasal, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Code mixing is not limited to children. Many searchers have investigated the phenomenon of legislation mixing or switching in adult bilinguals. However, there are important differences between the two. heavy(p) regulation switching is rule governed. What is thought to distinguish bilingual childrens mixing from adult mixing is the lack of systematicity or compliance to linguistic rules in the case of children. 3The position that mixing declines with age has been cited as evidence that the child originally had one system that gradually separates into two. The period of mixing is followed by language differentiation sometime during the bilingual childs third year. Volterra and Taeschners seminal paper see ma rk mixing in terms of a three-stage model of a single language system has had numerous supporters and critics. 4A growing number of researchers have published papers in the past friction match of decades supporting a two-language system. In 1985 Vihman looked at a bilingual Estonian/ English child. Having pointed out that there was insufficient data concerning the childs comprehension skills in both languages to confirm whether or not he had a single system It seems likely that two receptive stores did exist in a rudimentary form even at this earliest stage, however, since comprehension appeared to develop rapidly in both English and Estonian contexts well before the development of a wide-ranging productive vocabulary. 5 Considerable research has shown that monolingual children develop comprehension before production skills. The author agreed with Lindholm and Padilla6 that bilingual children are able, from an early age, to differentiate their two systems. 7Genesee also found evide nce of differentiated underlying language systems in his study of early bilinguals. He argued that bilingual children are able to differentiate their language systems from the beginning and that they are able touse their developing language systems differentially in contextually sensitive ways. 8Paradis and Genesee concluded the bilingual children in their study developed entirely distinct pronoun system for the two languages. 9Their research therefore supports the separate language hypothesis. Likewise, Quays study of an English/ Spanish bilingual child provides no evidence for the two-stage model of lexical development proposed by Volterra and Taeschner. 10Empirical and Interpretative DifficultiesMethodologyMost researchers criticise the methodology used by previous researchers in the field.Diary studies of a single child are common making any generalisation difficult.Other factors making comparison and therefore generalisation difficult include the differing exposure to the langu ages experienced by to each one child, their different language backgrounds and history, the different methods of language sampling undertaken by the various researchers, and the fact that to date there is no standardised measurements to compare children at various stages of bilingual development. Furthermore, diary studies may be insufficient to accurately reflect the linguistic competence of the child studied, regardless of whether or not the findings can be shown to be valid for other bilinguals. Diary data may not usurp all transmutation equivalents. 11 Quay also points out that studies making use of audio and video recordings tend not to lead them frequently enough Infrequent recordings for a short duration each time do not allow for conclusive evidence with regard to bilingual childrens ability to produce supplanting equivalents.12Radford reviewing Paradis and Genesee (1996) remarks on a methodological shortcoming noted in many an(prenominal) other studies, the use of a small corpus of data This tycoon lead us to the conclusion that PG simply didnt have enough data from enough children to support the sweeping theoretical claims that they make.13 Pearson and colleagues also criticize the emphasis on case studies a form in which systematic comparisons with other children are not generally attempted. 14 Their own research compared the language development of 25 English/ Spanish bilinguals with 35 monolinguals Without detailed information from a wide range of children, it is difficult to gain a broad perspective on what is typical and what is majestic in early bilingual development.15Radford states, much of the evidence VT (Volterra and Taeschner) bring to bear in support of their claim that children start out with a common syntax for their two languages is based to a large consequence on enrol-mixing.16 He suggests the fact that bilingual children are known to code mix cannot be seen as evidence for a single language system because adult also code switch and they are generally assumed to have separate grammars for each language. However, as has been stated earlier, children do not code mix in the way adults do. More problematic for supporters of the single language system is the finding by Genesee and colleagues that code mixing in early bilinguals is not as common as Volterra and Taeschner claim.17 These researchers discovered that code mixing takes place in only 1%-7% of bilingual childrens utterances.Like Radford, Genesee claims that there are serious methodological and interpretative shortcomings with much research into simultaneous bilingualism. In order for the single system hypothesis to be valid, bilingual children would requisite to use items from both languages indiscriminately in all contexts of communication.18 However, as Genesee makes clear, most research in the field has failed to analyse the data by context. Volterra and Taeschner for example, present isolated examples of the child addressing one parent only .19 Vihman did look at her bilingual childs utterances in context exactly she focused on one language only.20If the appearance, then decline, of code mixing in early bilingual development is not necessarily evidence of a single language system, what other factors may be responsible for the phenomenon?Vihman (1985) argues that the decline in mixing has more to do with the bilingual child gaining in sociolinguistic competence than evidence of the separation of language systems.21 Lanza also suggests a more sociolinguistic explanation for code mixing Children do learn to differentiate their language however, this differentiation process occurs in language socialisation through which they learn to differentiate ways of speaking according to the social demands of the situation. 22Other researchers point out that with the acquisition of more lexical items as the childs language skills develop, there is less need to borrow between languages (the lexical gap hypothesis).23 24 Peterson cla ims bilingual children switch to their dominant language because they havent the lexicon or syntactic structure in the weaker one.25 Bernardini agrees in some young bilingual childrenwith uneven development, having one language that is clearly weaker than the other, sentence-internal code-mixing is a result of uneven lexical development in the two languages. 26Pearson and colleagues test the Volterra Taeschner (1978) claim if children already have a lexical representation for a concept in both language, they will not be motivated to learn or use the words translation in the other.27 This follows Clarks principle of contrast, which predicts an absence of synonymy in early lexical development in both monolingual and bilingual children.28 Pearson and colleagues found no evidence to support Volterra Taeschner in their study of 27 early bilinguals. Quay also found no foundation for the principle of contrast in (the) bilingual case (studied). Quay points out most studies do not take into account whether young bilinguals have the lexical resources to make a choice between their two languages. 29According to Grosjean one language may be dominant because the child is exposed to that language more frequently and needs it to communicate with more people.30 Serratrice defined language dominance in terms of the amount of stimulus the child receives. 31It has been pointed out by a number of researchers that mixing may be linked to the childs speech environment. 32 The bilingual child might code mix because he hears his parents or other adults doing so. It has been argued the best way to avoid bilingual mixing in children is to have each parent speak only one language to the child. 33 Quay suggests, linguistic input from adult interlocutors must be taken into account in discussions of childrens language choices.34ConclusionsIt is clear that many factors are involved in simultaneous bilingual acquisition. The debate over whether these young children develop one or two l anguage systems initially has yet to be satisfactorily resolved. As many researchers point out parental input may well prove to be of particular importance. Whether the child has one system or two and thus resembles a single monolingual child or two monolingual children, it is clear that their ability to understand two languages may be comparable in each language to monolingual childrens.35Bernardini, P and Schlyter, S (2004) Growing syntactic structure and code-mixing in the weaker language The ivy hypothesis. Bilingualism quarrel and Cognition 7, 49-70Clark, E (1987) The principle of contrast a constraint on language acquisition. In B. MacWhinney (ed.) Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.Genesee, F (1989) Early bilingual development one language or two? daybook of Child Language 16, 161-179Genesee, F. Nicoladis, E Paradis, J (1995) Language differentiation in early bilingual development. ledger of Child language 22, 611-630Grosjean, F (1982) Life with two languages an introduction to bilingualism. Cambridge MA Harvard Uni pressLanza, E. (1992) dismiss bilingual two-year-olds code-switch? Journal of Child language 19, 633-657Lindholm, K and Padilla, A (1978) Child bilingualism report on language mixing, switching and translations. Linguistics 211, 23-44Paradis, J. and Genesee, F. (1996). Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children autonomous orinterdependent? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18 1-25.Pearson, B, Fernandez, S and Oller, D 1993. Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning 431, 93-120Pearson, B, Fernandez, S and Oller, D 1995. Cross-language synonyms in the lexicons of bilingual infants One language or two? Journal of Child Language 22, 345-368Pearson, B. Fernandez, S. Lewedeg, V Oller, K (1997). The relation of input factors to lexical culture by bilingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics 18, 41-58Peterson, J (1988) Word-internal code-switching const raints in a bilingual childs grammar. Linguistics, 26, 479-493Quay, S (1995) The bilingual lexicon implications for studies of language choice. Journal of Child Language 22, 369-387Radford, A (2005) Childrens English Principles-and-Parameters Perspectives. University of Essex.Serratrice, L. Referential coherence in the narratives of bilingual English-Italian children and monolingual peers. Journal of Pragmatics 39 (2007) 10581087 1083Vihman, M. (1985) Language differentiation by the bilingual infant. Journal of Child Language 12, 297-324Volterra, T and Taeschner, T (1978) The acquisition and development of language by bilingual children. Journal of Child Language 5, 311-3261Footnotes1 Lanza (1992634)2 Pearson et al (1993112)3 Genesee (1989)4 Volterra and Taeschner (1978)5 Vihman (1985316)6 Lindholm and Padilla (1978)7 Vihman (1985317)8 Genesee (1989174)9 Paradis and Genesee (1996).10 Quay (1995385)11 Quay (1995382)12 Quay (1995383)13 Radford (2005)14 Pearson et al (199395)15 Pearso n et al (1995348)16 Radford (2005)17 Genesee et al (1995)18 Genesee (1989165)19 Volterra and Taeschner (1978)20 Vihman (1985)21 Vihman (1985)22 Lanza (1992654)23 Volterra and Taeschner (1978)24 Lindholm and Padilla (1978)25 Peterson (1988)26 Bernardini and Schlyter (200449)27 Pearson et al (1995346)28 Clark (1987)29 Quay (1995369)30 Grosjean (1982)31 Serratrice (2007)32 Genesee (1989)33 Genesee (1989170)34 Quay (1995383)35 Pearson et al (1993113)